Adjectives Used In Comparisons – Part 2 – Grammar Lesson

CHAPTER 23.  ADJECTIVES USED IN COMPARISONS: PART 2

1. Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives which do not use endings

Adjectives which follow the model of the French language do not use the endings er and est. Instead, the adjectives are preceded by the adverbs more and most.

a. Comparative forms: The use of More

The comparative form of an adjective which does not take endings is formed by placing the word more before the positive form of the adjective.
e.g. She is more intelligent than her sister.
He is more determined than his brother.
In these examples, the comparative forms of the adjectives intelligent and determined have been formed by placing the word more before the positive forms of the adjectives.

See Exercise 1.

With the exception of two-syllable adjectives ending in y, most adjectives of more than one syllable form the comparative with the adverb more.

In addition, a few one-syllable adjectives, including one-syllable past participles used as adjectives, form the comparative with the adverb more.
e.g. This nail is more bent than that one.
He is more skilled than his brother.
She is more spoiled than her cousin.

The following table summarizes the formation of the comparative forms of English adjectives.

The Comparative forms of English Adjectives

Adjectives which take EndingsAdjectives used with More
  Most one-syllable adjectives,  A few one-syllable adjectives,
  e.g. strong, stronger  e.g. bent, more bent
  Two-syllable adjectives ending  Most adjectives of more than one
  in y, e.g. easy, easier,  syllable, e.g. graceful, more graceful
  and a few other two-syllable
  adjectives, e.g. quiet, quieter
i. The comparative form followed by Than

Adjectives which form the comparative with the adverb more are used in the same constructions as adjectives which form the comparative with the ending er.

The following examples illustrate the use of the two types of comparative form followed by than.
e.g. Tom is wiser than Ned.
Tom is more intelligent than Ned.

Parchment is stronger than paper.
Parchment is more durable than paper.

See Exercise 2.

The following examples illustrate the use of the two types of comparative form followed by a noun, followed by than.
e.g. Kirby is a finer musician than Tim.
Kirby is a more confident musician than Tim.

Rubber is a tougher material than leather.
Rubber is a more waterproof material than leather.

She has better tools than we do.
She has more expensive tools than we do.

See Exercise 3.

ii. Progressive comparisons

Like adjectives which take endings, adjectives which form the comparative with the adverb more can be used in progressive comparisons.

In the case of an adjective which takes endings, the comparative form of the adjective is repeated in a progressive comparison. However, in the case of an adjective which forms the comparative with more, only the word more is repeated. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

  noun, pronoun or  linking verb,  positive
  other expression    +  such as         +  more   +  and   +  more   +  form of
  representing thing  to grow or  adjective
  being described  to become
  The park  is becoming  more  and  more  beautiful.
  The horses  grew  more  and  more  restless.

The following examples illustrate the use of the two types of comparative form in progressive comparisons.
e.g. Tom became angrier and angrier.
Tom became more and more anxious.

The stars grew brighter and brighter.
The stars grew more and more brilliant.

See Exercise 4.

b. The use of Less

Adjectives which form the comparative with the adverb more may also be used in a similar way with the adverb lessLess and more have opposite meanings.

i. The construction Less … Than

The following examples illustrate the use of adjectives preceded by less and followed by than.
e.g. Arnold is less confident than Charles is.
The red bicycle is less expensive than the blue one.
The first example indicates that Arnold possesses a smaller degree of confidence than Charles does. The second example indicates that the red bicycle has a lower cost than the blue one.

See Exercise 5.

The following examples illustrate the use of adjectives preceded by less, and followed by a noun, followed by than.
e.g. He is a less well-known performer than his brother is.
They found themselves in a less fortunate situation than they had expected.
In these examples, the adjectives well-known and fortunate are followed by the nouns performer and situation.

ii. The construction Not As … As

In informal English, the following construction is often used:

  positive
  not as   +  form of     +  as
  adjective
  e.g. He is  not as  reliable  as  his brother.

For adjectives which form the comparative with more, either the construction less … than or the construction not as … as may be used. The construction not as … as is somewhat less formal than the construction less … than.

For instance, the two sentences in each of the following pairs have the same meaning.
e.g. Formal: The red bicycle is less expensive than the blue one.
Informal: The red bicycle is not as expensive as the blue one.

Formal: Arnold is less confident than Charles is.
Informal: Arnold is not as confident as Charles is.

For adjectives which form the comparative with the ending er, either the construction not as … as, or the comparative form of an adjective of opposite meaning may be used.

For instance, the two sentences in each of the following pairs have similar meanings.
e.g. This chair is not as soft as that one.
This chair is harder than that one.

He is not as old as his sister.
He is younger than his sister.

iii. The construction Less and Less

Both adjectives which take endings and adjectives which form the comparative with the adverb more can be used with the idiom less and less. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

  noun, pronoun or  linking verb,  positive
  other expression   +  such as       +  less   +  and   +  less   +  form of
  representing thing  to grow or  adjective
  being described  to become
  The water  is becoming  less  and  less  rough.
  The situation  grew  less  and  less  predictable.

The meaning of these two examples can also be expressed as follows:
e.g. The water is becoming decreasingly rough.
The situation grew decreasingly predictable.

See Exercise 6.

It should be noted that an adjective in a progressive comparison does not express exactly the same meaning as an adjective of opposite meaning used with the idiom less and less.

For instance, the following two sentences have somewhat different meanings.
e.g. The water is becoming less and less rough.
The water is becoming calmer and calmer.

The adjectives rough and calm have opposite meanings. The first example implies that the water is still quite rough, but that it is becoming decreasingly rough. The second example implies that the water is already quite calm, but that it is becoming increasingly calm.

c. Superlative Forms

As illustrated in the following table, the superlative form of adjectives which do not use endings is formed by placing the word most before the positive form of the adjective.

Positive FormComparative FormSuperlative Form
  beautiful  more beautiful  most beautiful
  dangerous  more dangerous  most dangerous
  intelligent  more intelligent  most intelligent
  interesting  more interesting  most interesting

For example:
She is the most intelligent child in the family.
This is the most interesting book I have ever read.

Adjectives which form the superlative with the adverb most are used in the same constructions as adjectives which form the superlative with the ending est.

The following examples illustrate the use of the two types of superlative form preceded by the word the and followed by a noun.
e.g. Quebec is one of the oldest cities in Canada.
Quebec is one of the most attractive cities in Canada.

This is the hardest question on the test.
This is the most difficult question on the test.

The following examples illustrate the use of the two types of superlative form preceded by a possessive adjective and followed by a noun.
e.g. This is his newest invention.
This is his most recent invention.

She is my closest friend.
She is my most trusted friend.

See Exercise 7.

Adjectives which form the superlative with the adverb most may also be used in a similar way with the adverb leastLeast and most have opposite meanings.
e.g. This is the least interesting book I have ever read.
This is the least difficult question on the test.

2. The adjectives Many, Much, Few and Little used to compare quantities

a. The use of Many, Much, Few and Little with countable and uncountable nouns

The adjectives many and much have the same meaning, except that many is used with plural countable nouns, and much is used with uncountable nouns.
e.g. He has written many books.
How much snow has fallen?
In these examples, books is a plural countable noun modified by many, and snow is an uncountable noun modified by much.

As pointed out in the previous chapter, the two adjectives many and much have the same comparative form, more, and the same superlative form, mostMore and most can be used to modify both countable and uncountable nouns.

Similarly, the adjectives few and little have the same meaning, except that few is used with plural countable nouns, and little is used with uncountable nouns.
e.g. I made few mistakes.
They have little hope of success.
In these examples, mistakes is a plural countable noun modified by few, and hope is an uncountable noun modified by little.

The comparative and superlative forms of few and little follow the same rules as the positive forms. Thus, the adjectives fewer and fewest are used to modify plural countable nouns, and the adjectives less and least are used to modify uncountable nouns.
e.g. This recipe requires fewer eggs than that recipe.
This street has less traffic than that street.

This recipe requires the fewest eggs.
This street has the least traffic.

In these examples eggs is a plural countable noun modified by fewer and fewest, and traffic is an uncountable noun modified by less and least.

The use of these adjectives with countable and uncountable nouns is summarized below. The adjectives in the left-hand column are used to compare quantities of things which can be counted, while those in the right-hand column are used to compare amounts of things which are considered as substances.

Used withUsed with
Countable NounsUncountable Nouns
  many  much
  more  more
  most  most
  few  little
  fewer  less
  fewest  least

See Exercise 8.

b. Synonyms for Many and Much

In questions and negative statements, the adjectives many and much are commonly used in both formal and informal English.
e.g. Question: How many museums have you visited?
Negative Statement: He does not have much confidence.

In affirmative statements, the adjectives many and much are commonly used in combination with words such as asso and too.
e.g. I have read twice as many books as you have.
He has so much money he can buy whatever he likes.
There are too many possibilities to consider.

However, in affirmative statements not containing words such as asso and too, the adjective much is rarely used in either formal or informal English, and the adjective many is rarely used in informal English. Instead, synonyms are used.

The phrases a great deal ofa lot of, and lots of are used as synonyms for much. The phrase a great deal of may be used in formal English, and the phrases a lot of and lots of may be used in informal English. The phrase lots of is more informal than the phrase a lot of.
e.g. Formal: He has a great deal of confidence.
Informal: He has a lot of confidence.
More Informal: He has lots of confidence.

In informal English, the phrases a lot of and lots of are used as synonyms for many. The phrase lots of is more informal than the phrase a lot of.
e.g. Formal: There are many possibilities.
Informal: There are a lot of possibilities.
More Informal: There are lots of possibilities.

c. Positive forms used in comparisons

In order to indicate that the things being compared are equal in some respect, the positive forms manymuchfew and little can be used as follows:

  as   +  positive   +  noun     +  as
  form
  e.g. She has  as  many  brothers  as  sisters.
        He has  as  much  courage  as  you do.
        They take  as  few  risks  as  possible.
        He knows  as  little  English  as  they do.

It is possible to modify such expressions by placing an adverb before the first occurrence of as, as illustrated below.

  adverb   +  as   +  positive   +  noun   +  as
  form
  e.g. She has  twice  as  many  brothers  as  sisters.
        He has  nearly  as  much  courage  as  you do.
        He knows  almost  as  little  English  as  they do.

See Exercise 9.

The positive forms manymuchfew and little can also be combined with expressions referring to a quantity of something. This type of construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

  as   +  positive   +  as   +  expression indicating
  form  a quantity of something
      The course includes  as  many  as  ten tests.
      Yesterday he drank  as  much  as  three liters of milk.
      The game requires  as  few  as  two players.
      The magazines cost  as  little  as  fifteen cents.

It should be noted that when a noun names a unit of currency or a unit of measurement, the amount referred to is usually considered as a whole. When this is the case, the noun acts as an uncountable noun, in that it may be modified by the adjectives muchlittle and less.

For instance, in the examples:
Yesterday he drank as much as three liters of milk.
The magazines cost as little as fifteen cents.
the noun liters names a unit of measurement, and the noun cents names a unit of currency. Since the amounts referred to are each considered as a whole, the adjectives much and little are used.

Likewise, in the following examples, the noun dollars names a unit of currency, and the nouns ounces and degrees name units of measurement.
e.g. We saved as much as fifteen dollars.
The kittens weighed as little as three ounces each.
The temperature this morning was less than five degrees.
In these examples, the nouns printed in bold type refer to amounts considered as a whole, and the adjectives muchlittle and less are used.

d. Comparative forms used in comparisons

The comparative forms morefewer and less are often employed in comparisons using the following construction:

  comparative   +  noun    +  than
  form
  e.g. I bought  more  apples  than  I needed.
        We eat  more  rice  than  they do.
        The class has  fewer  boys  than  girls.
        They ate  less  cake  than  we did.

This type of construction can also be combined with phrases or clauses. When two phrases or clauses are used to distinguish the things being compared, the word than may be placed before the second phrase or clause.
e.g. There is more wood in the park than on the island.
We have more fun when we go out than when we stay at home.

In the first example two locations are distinguished by the phrases in the park and on the island, and the second phrase, on the island, is preceded by the word than. In the second example two situations are distinguished by the clauses when we go out and when we stay at home, and the second clause, when we stay at home, is preceded by the word than.

See Exercise 10.

The comparative forms morefewer and less can also be used in comparisons referring to a quantity of something. The type of construction used is summarized below, followed by examples.

  comparative   +  than   +  expression indicating
  form  a quantity of something
      The bicycle costs  more  than  twenty dollars.
      The class has  fewer  than  ten students.
      The book costs  less  than  five dollars.

In addition, the comparative forms morefewer and less can be combined with nouns to form comparisons similar to progressive comparisons. The type of construction used is summarized below, followed by examples.

  comparative   +  and   +  comparative   +  noun
  form  form
      The baby is drinking  more  and  more  milk.
      The student made  fewer  and  fewer  mistakes.
      The boy is spending  less  and  less  money.

The first example indicates that the baby is drinking an increasing quantity of milk. The second example indicates that the student made a decreasing number of mistakes. The third example indicates that the boy is spending a decreasing amount of money.

See Exercise 11.

e. Superlative forms used in comparisons

The superlative forms mostfewest and least can be used in the following construction:

  the   +  superlative   +  noun
  form
  e.g. She scored  the  most  points.
        He made  the  fewest  mistakes.
        This room has  the  least  furniture.

3. The adjectives Similar, Different and Same used in comparisons

The idioms similar todifferent from and the same as can each be used in the following construction:

  noun, pronoun or  to be  different from,  noun, pronoun or
  other expression         +  or other   +  similar to, or   +  other expression
  representing 1st  linking  the same as  representing 2nd
  thing being compared    verb  thing being compared
  e.g. Her bicycle  looks  similar to  mine.
        The result  was  different from  what I had expected.
        His timetable  is  the same as  yours.

See Exercise 12.

The adjective similar followed by the preposition to can be used in comparing things which have characteristics in common.
e.g. The landscape of Maine is similar to that of Scandinavia.
His background is similar to yours.

The adjective different followed by the preposition from can be used in comparing things which have differing characteristics.
e.g. His ideas are different from mine.
Fish that live in the ocean are different from fish that live in rivers and lakes.

The verb differ followed by the preposition from can also be used in comparing things which have differing characteristics.
e.g. His ideas differ from mine.
Fish that live in the ocean differ from fish that live in rivers and lakes.

The phrase the same followed by as can be used in comparing things which are identical in some respect.
e.g. Your shoes look the same as mine.
The temperature of the water is the same as the temperature of the air.

It should be noted that the phrase the same can also be followed by a noun or other expression, as indicated below:

  noun, pronoun or  expression  noun, pronoun or
  other expression  stating  other expression
  representing 1st   +  verb   +  the same   +  what aspect   +  as   +  representing 2nd
  thing being  is being  thing being
  compared  compared  compared
  e.g. My coat  is  the same  color  as  hers.
        She  has  the same  postal code  as  you do.

If desired, adverbs may be used before the expressions similar todifferent from and the same, in order to modify these types of comparisons. The adverbs in the following examples are underlined.
e.g. Her bicycle looks quite similar to mine.
The result was somewhat different from what I had expected.
His timetable is almost the same as yours.
My coat is nearly the same color as hers.

It is also possible for the expressions similardifferent and the same to be used at the end of a sentence. This type of construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

  different,
  expression representing           +  linking verb   +  similar or
  the objects being compared  the same
  The flavors of strawberries and kiwi fruit  are  similar.
  My conclusion and your conclusion  are  different.
  The two sweaters  look  the same.

See Exercise 13.

4. Making logical comparisons

If complex sentences containing phrases or clauses are used to make comparisons, care must be taken, particularly in formal English, to ensure that the comparisons are logical and that the appropriate objects are in fact being compared.

For example, the following sentence is logically incorrect, because it compares life in the country to the city.
e.g. Life in the country is different from the city.

In order to be logically correct, the sentence must be changed so that similar types of things are being compared.
e.g. Life in the country is different from life in the city.
This sentence is logically correct, since it compares life in the country to life in the city.

Similarly, the following sentence is logically incorrect, because it compares the vowel sounds of English to Spanish.
e.g. The vowel sounds of English are more numerous than Spanish.

In order to be logically correct, the sentence must be changed so that similar types of things are being compared. Thus, the sentence may be corrected as follows:
e.g. The vowel sounds of English are more numerous than the vowel sounds of Spanish.

See Exercise 14.

In such sentences, the noun or phrase which is repeated in the second part of the comparison may be replaced by that or thoseThat is used if the noun being replaced is singular, and those is used if the noun being replaced is plural.
e.g. Life in the country is different from that in the city.
The vowel sounds of English are more numerous than those of Spanish.

In the first example, that is used to replace the singular noun life. In the second example, those is used to replace the phrase the vowel sounds. The form those must be used, since the noun sounds is plural.

See Exercise 15.

EXERCISES for Chapter 23

  1. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the comparative form of the adjective indicated in brackets. For example:
    They are ___________ than they used to be. (careful)
    They are more careful than they used to be.
  2. Wool is _______________ than cotton. (resilient)
  3. He is _______________ than I had expected. (excited)
  4. She is a _______________ scholar than her sister is. (diligent)
  5. Bev is a __________________ engineer than Pat. (experienced)
  6. Russian is a _______________ language to learn than English is. (difficult)
  7. This book is _______________ than that one. (interesting)
  8. Paying attention to which adjectives form the comparative with the adverb more and which form the comparative with the ending er, fill in the blanks with the comparative forms of the adjectives indicated in brackets. For example:
    The clothes are _____ than I had expected. (dry)
    The clothes are drier than I had expected.

Walter Scott is __________ than Walter Brooks. (famous)
Walter Scott is more famous than Walter Brooks.

  1. The pears are _______________ than the plums. (hard)
  2. The roses are ______________ than the nasturtiums. (beautiful)
  3. The tomatoes are _______________ than the apples. (expensive)
  4. My bicycle is _______________ than yours. (new)
  5. Cold lemonade is _______________ than water. (refreshing)
  6. The front yard is _______________ than the back yard. (big)
  7. This map is _______________ than that one. (good)
  8. Spinach is ______________ than Swiss chard. (delicate)
  9. His room is _______________ than yours. (tidy)
  10. Her report is _______________ than ours. (accurate)
  11. Paying attention to which adjectives form the comparative with the adverb more and which form the comparative with the ending er, rewrite the following sentences as comparisons, in the manner indicated by the examples. Use the words given in brackets as the second parts of the comparisons. For example:
    Collies have long hair. (dalmations do)
    Collies have longer hair than dalmations do.

He is an experienced architect. (we thought)
He is a more experienced architect than we thought.

  1. Terry is a good cook. (I am)
  2. That is a complex question. (you realize)
  3. My puppy has big feet. (yours does)
  4. It was a difficult decision. (you might think)
  5. That is a sandy part of the beach. (this is)
  6. He runs a successful business. (his father did)
  7. Cliff has a bad temper. (his brother does)
  8. This rose bush has small flowers. (that one does)
  9. They own expensive bicycles. (we do)
  10. Robin proved to be a courageous leader. (anyone had expected)
  11. The school has a large auditorium. (the city library does)
  12. That car has an efficient engine. (this one does)
  13. Paying attention to which adjectives form the comparative with the ending er and which form the comparative with the adverb more, rewrite each of the following sentences, using the construction in which the word more or the comparative form of the adjective is repeated. For example:
    The water grew increasingly warm.
    The water grew warmer and warmer.

I became increasingly impatient.
I became more and more impatient.

  1. The rain became increasingly heavy.
  2. The crowd grew increasingly enthusiastic.
  3. We became increasingly uneasy.
  4. Manufacturing companies were becoming increasingly large.
  5. The weather grew increasingly bad.
  6. The compilation of accurate statistics is becoming increasingly necessary.
  7. Methods of diagnosis are becoming increasingly accurate.
  8. Their contribution to the project became increasingly important.
  9. Standards are becoming increasingly high.
  10. They became increasingly optimistic.
  11. Rewrite each of the following sentences as comparisons, using the form of the adjective with less and the word than. For each sentence, use the words given in brackets as the second part of the comparison. For example:
    The plot of the movie was predictable. (we expected)
    The plot of the movie was less predictable than we expected.

The second explanation was confusing. (the first)
The second explanation was less confusing than the first.

  1. The issue is important. (I thought)
  2. The train is punctual. (it used to be)
  3. The spoons are valuable. (the candlesticks)
  4. Nora is excited. (Karen is)
  5. The bus is crowded. (the subway)
  6. This movie is entertaining. (the one we saw last night)
  7. Rewrite each of the following sentences, using the construction in which the word less is repeated. For example:
    The idea became decreasingly attractive.
    The idea became less and less attractive.
  8. The wind grew decreasingly fierce.
  9. The tune became decreasingly recognizable.
  10. Word processors are becoming decreasingly expensive.
  11. The rainbow grew decreasingly bright.
  12. The children became decreasingly alert.
  13. The service became decreasingly convenient.
  14. Paying attention to which adjectives form the superlative with the adverb most and which form the superlative with the ending est, fill in the blanks with the superlative forms of the adjectives indicated in brackets. For example:
    The first question is the ______________. (difficult)
    The first question is the most difficult.

The last question is the _______. (easy)
The last question is the easiest.

  1. Sarah is the ________________ girl in the class. (intelligent)
  2. He is the _______________ boy in the school. (lucky)
  3. This is the _________________ book I have ever read. (good)
  4. That is the _________________ painting in the museum. (valuable)
  5. Yesterday was the ________________ day of the year. (hot)
  6. She is the _______________ student in the school. (new)
  7. This movie is the _________________. (entertaining)
  8. He is the _______________ man in the village. (brave)
  9. Summer is usually the _________________ time of the year. (dry)
  10. He is the _________________ player on the team. (talented)
  11. This is the ________________ route into town. (direct)
  12. The library is the _________________ building on the street. (old)
  13. Paying attention to whether the noun to be modified is countable or uncountable, complete each of the following sentences by filling in the blank with the correct adjective chosen from the pair given in brackets. For example:
    ____ schools were closed because of the snowstorm. (many, much)
    Many schools were closed because of the snowstorm.

____ time could have been saved. (many, much)
Much time could have been saved.

There are ___ buildings as beautiful as the Taj Mahal. (few, little)
There are few buildings as beautiful as the Taj Mahal.

There was ______ furniture in the room. (few, little)
There was little furniture in the room.

The storm caused ____ damage than had been expected. (fewer, less)
The storm caused less damage than had been expected.

  1. There are __________ ducks in the park. (many, much)
  2. __________ water is left in the pond. (few, little)
  3. __________ authors are as famous as Shakespeare. (few, little)
  4. How __________ rice do you have? (many, much)
  5. There are __________ books on the subject which she has not read. (few, little)
  6. __________ attention has been paid to the importance of the mass media. (many, much)
  7. _________ people prefer soccer to football. (many, much)
  8. There are ___________ stores downtown than there are in the suburbs. (fewer, less)
  9. __________ information was available. (few, little)
  10. _________ sports are as fast-paced as hockey. (few, little)
  11. She made the ____________ mistakes of all the children in the class. (fewest, least)
  12. __________ work remains to be done. (few, little)
  13. There is often __________ wind in the evening than there is at midday. (fewer, less)
  14. He does not have _________ money. (many, much)
  15. He did the __________ work of all the boys in the class. (fewest, least)
  16. She told __________ stories to amuse the children. (many, much)
  17. The following table shows the number of books and amount of money possessed by each of eight children.

Child’s NameNumber of BooksAmount of Money ($)
 Debbie 12 20
 Penny  6 30
 Alex  4 10
 Tim 24  5
 Chris  8  2
 Lisa  3 15
 Terry 16  6
 Helen  2  3

Following the model of the examples, use the adjectives much and many to write sentences comparing the number of books or the amount of money possessed by the children in each of the following pairs. For example:
Debbie and Penny (books)
Debbie has twice as many books as Penny.

Alex and Debbie (money)
Alex has half as much money as Debbie.

Lisa and Helen (money)
Lisa has five times as much money as Helen.

  1. Penny and Alex (money)
  2. Chris and Terry (books)
  3. Penny and Lisa (books)
  4. Debbie and Tim (money)
  5. Tim and Alex (money)
  6. Penny and Tim (books)
  7. Terry and Helen (money)
  8. Terry and Helen (books)
  9. Tim and Chris (books)
  10. Penny and Tim (money)
  11. Rewrite each of the following sentences as a comparison, using the comparative form of the underlined adjective, and the word than. Note that the phrase a great deal of is used instead of the adjective much. For each sentence, use the word or words given in brackets as the second part of the comparison. For example:
    We took many photographs. (he did)
    We took more photographs than he did.

He drinks a great deal of coffee. (tea)
He drinks more coffee than tea.

She has few responsibilities. (I do)
She has fewer responsibilities than I do.

There is little danger. (you think)
There is less danger than you think.

  1. She reads many books. (I do)
  2. They have had little success. (you have)
  3. We bought a great deal of rice. (flour)
  4. We had few accidents, we had expected)
  5. The proposal has many advantages. (disadvantages)
  6. She uses a great deal of honey. (sugar)
  7. We eat little cheese. (meat)
  8. They entertain few visitors. (we do)
  9. He can speak many languages. (anyone else I know)
  10. They have few customers. (they would like)
  11. The project will take a great deal of time. (you think)
  12. This stove requires little fuel. (one would expect)
  13. Rewrite each of the following sentences as a progressive comparison using the comparative form of the underlined adjective. For example:
    Many ducks flew overhead.
    More and more ducks flew overhead.

Few leaves were falling.
Fewer and fewer leaves were falling.

  1. We had many adventures.
    2. Few visitors remained.
  2. There was little danger that we would lose our way.
    4. Few trees were planted.
    5. Many tourists visit our city each year.
  3. I saw few cars on the road.
  4. The weather caused little difficulty.
  5. They met many people.
  6. Write three sentences of your own, using the phrases similar todifferent from and the same as.
  7. Rewrite each of the following sentences, keeping the meaning of the sentence, but using one of the phrases similar todifferent from or the same as, as appropriate. Make sure that the verb of the rewritten sentence agrees with the subject of the sentence. For example:
    My essay and your essay are similar.
    My essay is similar to your essay.

Their results and our results are different.
Their results are different from our results.

The price of the scarf and the price of the gloves are the same.
The price of the scarf is the same as the price of the gloves.

  1. My skates and his skates look similar.
  2. This book and that book are different.
  3. The child’s height and the height of the table are the same.
  4. This story and that story seem similar.
  5. The date of the concert and the date of the play are the same.
  6. The view from the window and the view from the door are different.
  7. My sister and my cousin look similar.
  8. This cake and that cake taste the same.
  9. My experiences and your experiences are different.
  10. His schedule and your schedule are the same.
  11. Each of the following sentences contains a comparison which is logically incorrect. Rewrite the sentences, adding whatever nouns or phrases are necessary in order to make the comparisons logically correct. For example:
    The price of honey was higher than sugar.
    The price of honey was higher than the price of sugar.

The average rainfall for September is the same as February.
The average rainfall for September is the same as the average rainfall for February.

  1. The vegetation of Europe differs from North America.
  2. The taxes in Singapore are lower than Canada.
  3. The invention of the clarinet occurred more recently than the flute.
  4. The speed limit in residential areas is lower than uninhabited areas.
  5. The grammar of English is simpler than Arabic.
  6. The climate of California is somewhat similar to Greece.
  7. The boiling point of oil is higher than water.
  8. The geometry of a pentagon is more complex than a square.
  9. The density of water is greater than ice.
  10. The location of the library is more convenient than the post office.
  11. Simplify each of the following sentences by using that or those to replace the noun or phrase which is repeated in the second part of the comparison. For example:
    The song of the chickadee is more melodious than the song of the nuthatch.
    The song of the chickadee is more melodious than that of the nuthatch.

The landforms of eastern Canada are similar to the landforms of Finland.
The landforms of eastern Canada are similar to those of Finland.

  1. The cuisine of France is more famous than the cuisine of England.
  2. The fruits of the tropics are more varied than the fruits of temperate regions.
  3. The growth form of the strawberry differs from the growth form of the raspberry.
  4. The freezing point of salt water is lower than the freezing point of fresh water.
  5. The traditions of Austria are as fascinating as the traditions of Greece.
  6. The nutritional value of whole grain flour is greater than the nutritional value of refined flour.
  7. The mountains of Nepal are higher than the mountains of Europe.
  8. The teaching methods of today differ from the teaching methods of one hundred years ago.
  9. The tone of an old violin is often more beautiful than the tone of a new violin.
  10. The flowers of alpine pastures are more colorful than the flowers of the lowlands.

ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES for Chapter 23

Answers to Exercise 1:
1. more resilient 2. more excited 3. more diligent 4. more experienced 5. more difficult 6. more interesting

Answers to Exercise 2:
1. harder 2. more beautiful 3. more expensive 4. newer 5. more refreshing 6. bigger 7. better 8. more delicate 9. tidier 10. more accurate

Answers to Exercise 3:
1. Terry is a better cook than I am. 2. That is a more complex question than you realize. 3. My puppy has bigger feet than yours does. 4. It was a more difficult decision than you might think. 5. That is a sandier part of the beach than this is. 6. He runs a more successful business than his father did. 7. Cliff has a worse temper than his brother does. 8. This rose bush has smaller flowers than that one does. 9. They own more expensive bicycles than we do. 10. Robin proved to be a more courageous leader than anyone had expected. 11. The school has a larger auditorium than the city library does. 12. That car has a more efficient engine than this one does.

Answers to Exercise 4:
1. The rain became heavier and heavier. 2. The crowd grew more and more enthusiastic. 3. We became more and more uneasy. 4. Manufacturing companies were becoming larger and larger. 5. The weather grew worse and worse. 6. The compilation of accurate statistics is becoming more and more necessary. 7. Methods of diagnosis are becoming more and more accurate. 8. Their contribution to the project became more and more important. 9. Standards are becoming higher and higher. 10. They became more and more optimistic.

Answers to Exercise 5:
1. The issue is less important than I thought. 2. The train is less punctual than it used to be. 3. The spoons are less valuable than the candlesticks. 4. Nora is less excited than Karen is. 5. The bus is less crowded than the subway. 6. This movie is less entertaining than the one we saw last night.

Answers to Exercise 6:
1. The wind grew less and less fierce. 2. The tune became less and less recognizable. 3. Word processors are becoming less and less expensive. 4. The rainbow grew less and less bright. 5. The children became less and less alert. 6. The service became less and less convenient.

Answers to Exercise 7:
1. most intelligent 2. luckiest 3. best 4. most valuable 5. hottest 6. newest 7. most entertaining 8. bravest 9. driest 10. most talented 11. most direct 12. oldest

Answers to Exercise 8:
1. many 2. Little 3. Few 4. much 5. few 6. Much 7. Many 8. fewer 9. Little 10. Few 11. fewest 12. Little 13. less 14. much 15. least 16. many

Answers to Exercise 9:
1. Penny has three times as much money as Alex. 2. Chris has half as many books as Terry. 3. Penny has twice as many books as Lisa. 4. Debbie has four times as much money as Tim. 5. Tim has half as much money as Alex. 6. Penny has one-quarter as many books as Tim. 7. Terry has twice as much money as Helen. 8. Terry has eight times as many books as Helen. 9. Tim has three times as many books as Chris. 10. Penny has six times as much money as Tim.

Answers to Exercise 10:
1. She reads more books than I do. 2. They have had less success than you have. 3. We bought more rice than flour. 4. We had fewer accidents than we had expected. 5. The proposal has more advantages than disadvantages. 6. She uses more honey than sugar. 7. We eat less cheese than meat. 8. They entertain fewer visitors than we do. 9. He can speak more languages than anyone else I know. 10. They have fewer customers than they would like. 11. The project will take more time than you think. 12. This stove requires less fuel than one would expect.

Answers to Exercise 11:
1. We had more and more adventures. 2. Fewer and fewer visitors remained. 3. There was less and less danger that we would lose our way. 4. Fewer and fewer trees were planted. 5. More and more tourists visit our city each year. 6. I saw fewer and fewer cars on the road. 7. The weather caused us less and less difficulty. 8. They met more and more people.

Answers to Exercise 13:
1. My skates look similar to his skates. 2. This book is different from that book. 3. The child’s height is the same as the height of the table. 4. This story seems similar to that story. 5. The date of the concert is the same as the date of the play. 6. The view from the window is different from the view from the door. 7. My sister looks similar to my cousin. 8. This cake tastes the same as that cake. 9. My experiences are different from your experiences. 10. His schedule is the same as your schedule.

Answers to Exercise 14:
1. The vegetation of Europe differs from the vegetation of North America. 2. The taxes in Singapore are lower than the taxes in Canada. 3. The invention of the clarinet occurred more recently than the invention of the flute. 4. The speed limit in residential areas is lower than the speed limit in uninhabited areas. 5. The grammar of English is simpler than the grammar of Arabic. 6. The climate of California is somewhat similar to the climate of Greece. 7. The boiling point of oil is higher than the boiling point of water. 8. The geometry of a pentagon is more complex than the geometry of a square. 9. The density of water is greater than the density of ice. 10. The location of the library is more convenient than the location of the post office.

Answers to Exercise 15:
1. The cuisine of France is more famous than that of England. 2. The fruits of the tropics are more varied than those of temperate regions. 3. The growth form of the strawberry differs from than of the raspberry. 4. The freezing point of salt water is lower than that of fresh water. 5. The traditions of Austria are as fascinating as those of Greece. 6. The nutritional value of whole grain flour is greater than that of refined flour. 7. The mountains of Nepal are higher than those of Europe. 8. The teaching methods of today differ from those of one hundred years ago. 9. The tone of an old violin is often more beautiful than that of a new violin. 10. The flowers of alpine pastures are more colorful than those of the lowlands.

VocaGram English Grammar Vocabulary Tests Exercises

English Grammar Lessons
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