Determiners – Grammar Lesson

CHAPTER 20.  DETERMINERS

As indicated in the tables below, many determiners can be used either as adjectives or as pronouns. As will be pointed out in the next chapter, when a determiner is used as an adjective modifying a noun, the determiner usually precedes any other adjectives modifying the same noun.

The use of the following determiners has already been discussed in previous chapters: aanthethisthat, these and those. The possessive adjectives myyourhisherour and their can also be classified as determiners.

As indicated below, many determiners may be used only with certain types of noun. In the following tables, the abbreviation CN stands for Countable Noun, and the abbreviation UN stands for Uncountable Noun. In these tables, the noun tree is used as an example of a countable noun, and the noun grass is used as an example of an uncountable noun.

Determiners used as Adjectives

DeterminerUsed WithExampleMeaning
  all  plural CN  all trees  trees in general
  UN  all grass  grass in general
  another  singular CN  another tree  one additional or different tree
  any  singular CN  any tree  refers to one tree, without
    specifying which, of a group
    of more than 2 trees
  plural CN  any trees  refers to 2 or more trees,
    without specifying which
  UN  any grass  refers to some grass,
    without specifying which
  both  plural CN  both trees  refers to 2 trees of a
    group of 2
  each  singular CN  each tree  refers to every tree,
    considered individually,
    of a group of 2 or more
  either  singular CN  either tree  refers to 1 of 2 trees,
    without specifying which
  enough  plural CN  enough trees  a sufficient number of trees
  UN  enough grass  a sufficient amount of grass
  every  singular CN  every tree  all trees, without exception,
    of a group of more than 2 trees
  few  plural CN  few trees  a small number of trees
  fewer  plural CN  fewer trees  a smaller number of trees
  less  UN  less grass  a smaller amount of grass
  little  UN  little grass  a small amount of grass
  many  plural CN  many trees  a large number of trees
  more  plural CN  more trees  an additional number of trees
  UN  more grass  an additional amount of grass
  most  plural CN  most trees  nearly all trees
  UN  most grass  nearly all grass
  much  UN  much grass  a large amount of grass
  neither  singular CN  neither tree  no tree of a group of 2 trees
  no  singular CN  no tree  not any tree
  plural CN  no trees  not any trees
  UN  no grass  not any grass
  one  singular CN  one tree  a single tree
  only  plural CN  only trees  nothing except trees
  UN  only grass  nothing except grass
  other  plural CN  other trees  different trees
  UN  other grass  different grass
  several  plural CN  several trees  more than 2 trees, but not
    a large number of trees
  some  singular CN  some tree  an unspecified tree
  plural CN  some trees  unspecified trees
  UN  some grass  unspecified grass
  such  singular CN  such a tree  a tree of a certain kind
  plural CN  such trees  trees of a certain kind
  UN  such grass  grass of a certain kind
  that  singular CN  that tree  a particular tree, which
    is not nearby
  UN  that grass  particular grass, which
    is not nearby
  these  plural CN  these trees  particular trees, which
    are nearby
  this  singular CN  this tree  a particular tree, which
    is nearby
  UN  this grass  particular grass, which
    is nearby
  those  plural CN  those trees  particular trees, which
    are not nearby
  what  singular CN  what tree  asks in general for one
    tree to be specified
  plural CN  what trees  asks in general for particular
    trees to be specified
  UN  what grass  asks in general for particular
    grass to be specified
  which  singular CN  which tree  asks for one tree to be specified
    from a certain group of trees
  plural CN  which trees  asks for trees to be specified
    from a certain group of trees
  UN  which grass  asks for some of certain
    grass to be specified

The following determiners can be used independently, as pronouns:

Determiners used as Pronouns

DeterminerUsed WithExampleMeaning
  all  plural CN  all (of) the trees  refers to every tree in a
    group of more than 2
    trees
  UN  all (of) the grass  refers to the whole amount
    of certain specified grass
  another  plural CN  another of the trees  one more of certain
    specified trees
  any  plural CN  any of the trees  refers to 1 or more
    unspecified trees from a
    group of more than 2
  UN  any of the grass  refers to some of certain
    specified grass
  both  plural CN  both of the trees  refers to 2 trees of a
    group of 2
  each  plural CN  each of the trees  refers to every tree,
    considered individually,
    of a group of 2 or more
  either  plural CN  either of the trees  refers to 1 of 2 trees,
    without specifying which
  enough  singular CN  enough of the tree  a sufficient amount of a
    specified tree
  plural CN  enough of the trees  a sufficient number of
    certain specified trees
  UN  enough of the grass  a sufficient amount of
    certain specified grass
  few  plural CN  few of the trees  a small number from a
    specified group of trees
  fewer  plural CN  fewer of the trees  a smaller number from a
    specified group of trees
  less  UN  less of the grass  a smaller amount of certain
    specified grass
  little  UN  little of the grass  a small amount of certain
    specified grass
  many  plural CN  many of the trees  a large number of certain
    specified trees
  more  plural CN  more of the trees  an additional number of
    certain specified trees
  UN  more of the grass  an additional amount of
    certain specified grass
  most  plural CN most of the trees  nearly all of certain
    specified trees
  UN  most of the grass  nearly all of certain
    specified grass
  much  UN  much of the grass  a large proportion of
    certain specified grass
  neither  plural CN  neither of the trees  no tree of a group of 2 trees
  none  plural CN  none of the trees  no tree of certain specified
    trees
  UN  none of the grass  no grass of certain specified
    grass
  one  plural CN  one of the trees  a single tree of certain
    specified trees
  others  plural CN  others of the trees  different trees, from a
    particular group of trees
  several  plural CN  several of the trees  more than 2, but not a large
    number, of certain specified
    trees
  some  singular CN  some of the tree  an unspecified portion of
    a particular tree
  plural CN  some of the trees  unspecified trees from a
    particular group of trees
  UN  some of the grass  an unspecified portion
    of particular grass
  such  plural CN  such of the trees  trees of a certain kind,
    from a certain specified
    group of trees
  UN  such of the grass  grass of a certain kind,
    from certain specified
    grass
  those  plural CN  those of the trees  particular trees, from a
    certain specified group
    of trees
  which  plural CN  which of the trees  asks for one or more trees
    to be specified, from a
    particular group of trees

 1. Determiners used to refer to groups of two persons or things

In Old English, there were singular forms, plural forms and dual forms. Dual forms are used to refer to two persons or things. In modern English, a few words still remain which refer to two persons or things.

For example, the determiners botheither and neither are used when referring to groups of twoBoth refers to two things of a group of two, either refers to one thing of a group of two, and neither refers to zero things of a group of two.
e.g. I have two brothers. Both of them are engineers.
I had two maps of the city, but I cannot find either of them.
There are two textbooks for the course. Neither of them is expensive.

In contrast, the determiners allany and none may be used when referring to groups with more than two members. All may refer to every member of a group of three or more, any may refer to one member of a group of three or more, and none may refer to zero members of a group of three or more.
e.g. I have three brothers. All of them are engineers.
I had four maps of the city, but I cannot find any of them.
There are six textbooks for the course. None of them is expensive.

See Exercise 1.

The following rules for the use of either and neither should be noted.

If it is desired to change a clause beginning with either so as to express a negative meaning, either must be changed to neither.
e.g. Affirmative MeaningEither of the alternatives is acceptable.
Negative MeaningNeither of the alternatives is acceptable.

Affirmative MeaningEither hotel will offer you its best room.
Negative MeaningNeither hotel will offer you its best room.

A sentence which contains the word either, in which either does not occur at the beginning of a clause, can be changed to express a negative meaning either by using the word not, or by changing either to neither.
e.g. Affirmative Meaning: You may borrow either of the books.
Negative Meaning: You may not borrow either of the books.
Negative Meaning: You may borrow neither of the books.

Affirmative Meaning: I might give the message to either boy.
Negative Meaning: I might not give the message to either boy.
Negative Meaning: I might give the message to neither boy.

It should be noted that in modern English, the determiner neither is most often used only at the beginning of a clause. Otherwise, the meaning of neither is usually expressed by the combination not … either.

In addition to being used as determiners, the words botheither and neither can also be used as conjunctions. Conjunctions will be discussed in Chapter 28.

2. Determiners used as singular or plural pronouns

In formal English, the pronouns anothereacheitherneither and one always take singular verbs.
e.g. Each of the children wants to win the prize.
Either of the alternatives is acceptable.
Neither of the books has good illustrations.
Every one of the students was ready on time.
In these examples, the singular verbs wantsishas, and was are used with the pronouns eacheitherneither and one.

In informal English, plural verbs are sometimes used with pronouns such as eacheither and neither.
e.g. Neither of the books have good illustrations.
However, this use of the plural verb is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

It should also be noted that in formal English, when the words anothereacheveryeitherneither and one are used in combination with personal pronouns or possessive adjectives, singular forms are always used. As mentioned previously, in formal English, the adjective his or the phrase his or her may be used when referring to a group containing both male and female members.
e.g. Each of the children waited impatiently for his turn.
Every student raised his or her hand.
Neither of the girls has finished her homework.
Either of the hotels will offer you its best room.
In these examples, eacheveryneither and either are used in combination with the singular forms hishis or herher and its.

In informal English, plural possessive adjectives are often used in this type of sentence.
e.g. Neither of the girls finished their homework.
However, this use of the plural possessive adjective is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

It should be noted that in both formal and informal English, none is used sometimes with singular, and sometimes with plural verbs.
e.g. None of them is here. or
None of them are here.

In contrast, the pronouns bothfewmany and several are always plural. They take plural verbs, and are used in combination with plural personal pronouns and possessive adjectives. In addition, the pronoun all is always plural when used with countable nouns.
e.g. Both of the boys have completed their essays.
Several of the musicians are giving their first performances tonight.
All of the girls have finished their homework.

In these examples, the pronouns bothseveral and all take the plural verbs have completedare giving and have finished, and are used in combination with the plural possessive adjective their.

See Exercise 2.

3. The use of All, Both and Each

In addition to being used as attributive adjectives and as pronouns followed by of, the words allboth and each can also be used in apposition. A word used in apposition immediately follows the subject of a verb, or the object of a verb or preposition, and refers to the same thing as the subject or object. In the following examples, the words in apposition are printed in bold type.
e.g. We both wondered what would happen next.
The boys all looked forward to seeing the circus.
I sent them each an invitation.

In the first two examples, both and all are used in apposition to the subjects we and the boys. In the third example, each is used in apposition to the object them.

Words used in apposition can be referred to as appositives. Like relative clauses, appositives can be defining or non-defining. Non-defining appositives must be preceded and followed by commas.
e.g. Our leader, Tom Smith, was prepared for any emergency.
In this example Tom Smith is a non-defining appositive, in apposition to our leader.

Defining appositives such as allboth and each are not preceded and followed by commas.
e.g. We each have our own ideas.
In this example, the defining appositive each is in apposition to we. It should be noted that although each is singular, the verb have must be plural to agree with the subject we.

When used in clauses with auxiliary verbs or with the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to beallboth and each generally follow the first auxiliary or the verb to be, rather than being used in apposition to the subject of the verb.
e.g. The boys had all been looking forward to seeing the circus.
We are both very happy to see you.
In the first example, all follows the first auxiliary had. In the second example, both follows the Simple Present of the verb to be.

4. The use of No, None and Not

The words nonone and not have similar meanings, but different grammatical functions.

The determiner no can be used as an adjective, but not as a pronoun; whereas none can be used as a pronoun, but not as an adjective.
e.g. He has no books.
None of the books are his.
In the first example, no is used as an adjective modifying the noun books. In the second example, none functions as a pronoun.

As has already been pointed out, the adverb not may be placed after the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be, or after the first auxiliary of other verbs, in order to form a negative sentence or clause.
e.g. You are not late.
I have not forgotten what you said.

See Exercise 3.

Just as neither can be said to be equivalent to the combination not … eithernone can be said to be equivalent to not … any. For instance, the following sentence:
He will have no difficulty.
could also be written:
He will not have any difficulty.

5. The use of Some and Any

The determiners some and any have slightly different meanings. The use of the word some generally implies a belief in the existence of the object or objects under consideration, whereas the use of the word any may imply a doubt about the existence of the object or objects under consideration.

The words somesomebodysomeonesomething and somewhere are used in affirmative statements, as well as in polite questions and questions expecting an affirmative reply.
e.g. Affirmative Statement: I saw some birds in the park.
Polite Question: Would you like some tea?
Affirmative Reply Expected: You seem worried. Is something wrong?

In contrast, the words anyanybodyanyoneanything and anywhere are used in questions and negative statements, as well as in affirmative statements referring in an indefinite way to a type of object, without specifying a particular object.
e.g. Question: Did you see any birds in the park?
Negative Statement: I do not know anyone here.
Indefinite ReferenceAny drug store can supply you with aspirin.

The words somesomebodysomeonesomething and somewhere usually cannot be used in a negative statement. If it is desired to change a clause beginning with the word some so that it expresses a negative meaning, some may be changed to no or none, depending on whether an adjective or pronoun is required.

In the following example, some is used as an adjective modifying the noun books. In order to change the sentence to express a negative meaning, some is replaced by the adjective no.
e.g. Affirmative MeaningSome books were left on the shelf.
Negative MeaningNo books were left on the shelf.

In the following example, some is used as a pronoun. In order to change the sentence to express a negative meaning, some is replaced by the pronoun none.
e.g. Affirmative MeaningSome of the visitors arrived late.
Negative MeaningNone of the visitors arrived late.

Similarly, if it is desired to change a clause beginning with somebodysomeonesomething or somewhere so that it expresses a negative meaning, these words may be replaced by nobodyno onenothing and nowhere, respectively.
e.g. Affirmative MeaningSomeone left a message.
Negative MeaningNo one left a message.

Affirmative MeaningSomething has happened.
Negative MeaningNothing has happened.

A sentence containing the word some, in which some does not occur at the beginning of a clause, can be changed to express a negative meaning by changing the sentence to a negative statement using not, and by changing some to any.
e.g. Affirmative Meaning: I bought some potatoes.
Negative Meaning: I did not buy any potatoes.

Affirmative Meaning: We will copy some of the recipes.
Negative Meaning: We will not copy any of the recipes.

It is possible to use no or none in such sentences instead of the construction with not … any.
e.g. I bought no potatoes.
We will copy none of the recipes.
However, in modern English, the construction with not … any is more often used than the construction with no or none.

See Exercise 4.

Similarly, a sentence containing the word somebodysomeonesomething or somewhere, in which the word beginning with some does not occur at the beginning of a clause, can be changed to express a negative meaning by changing the sentence to a negative statement using not, and by changing the word beginning with some to the corresponding word beginning with any.
e.g. Affirmative Meaning: I met someone I used to know.
Negative Meaning: I did not meet anyone I used to know.

Affirmative Meaning: We will buy something.
Negative Meaning: We will not buy anything.

In such sentences, nobodyno onenothing or nowhere may be used instead of a negative statement with not and the word anybodyanyoneanything or anywhere.
e.g. I met no one I used to know.
We will buy nothing.
However, the construction with not is more often used.

See Exercise 5.

6. The use of Another, Other, Others and Else

The words anotherotherothers and else are used to indicate one or more additional or different things.

Another is formed from a combination of the words an and other, and has a meaning similar to one other. When used as an adjective, another can precede only a singular countable noun. When used as a pronoun, another takes a singular verb.
e.g. Please bring me another knife.
Another of her uncles lives in Montreal.
In the first example, another modifies the singular noun knife. In the second example, the pronoun another is the subject of the singular verb lives.

Other can be used with singular countable, plural countable or uncountable nouns.
e.g. The other door is open.
The other streets are paved.
Do you have any other luggage?
In these examples, other modifies the singular countable noun door, the plural countable noun streets, and the uncountable noun luggage.

Another usually cannot be immediately preceded by a determiner. In contrast, when used before a singular countable noun, other usually must be preceded by a determiner.
e.g. Please pass me the other cup.
I do not know any other way to do it.
There must be some other explanation.
In these examples, other is used with the singular countable nouns cupway and explanation, and is preceded by the determiners theany and some.

When other modifies a singular countable noun, the noun is sometimes omitted, particularly in the expression one … the other.
e.g. I have two pens. One is green and the other is blue.
One of my parents is a teacher; the other is a doctor.

In these examples, the nouns following the word other are understood, rather than expressed. In the following sentences, the nouns which are understood are enclosed in square brackets.
e.g. I have two pens. One is green and the other [pen] is blue.
One of my parents is a teacher; the other [parent] is a doctor.

Others is a pronoun. Others can be used to take the place of the word other, followed by a plural countable noun.
e.g. Those trees are hemlocks; the others are pines.
Ten people belong to the group, and five others are planning to join.
In the first example, others takes the place of the words other trees. In the second example, others takes the place of the words other people.

Others is often used in the expression some … others.
e.g. Some books are easy to read, but others are quite difficult.
Some people like classical music, while others prefer jazz.

The word else has a meaning similar to other. However, rather than being used as an adjective preceding a noun, else usually follows interrogative pronouns such as who and what, and indefinite pronouns such as anyone and someone.
e.g. Who else was at the meeting?
What else is on the agenda?
Has anyone else solved the problem?
Someone else may be able to help you.

See Exercise 6.

7. The use of Only

In addition to being used as a determiner, the word only can be used to modify almost any part of a sentence. In general, the word only immediately precedes the part of the sentence which it modifies.

The following examples illustrate how changing the position of the word only can change the meaning of a sentence.
e.g. Only the trees were somewhat damaged by last year’s storm.
MeaningNothing except the trees was somewhat damaged by last year’s storm.

The only trees were somewhat damaged by last year’s storm.
MeaningThe few trees which existed were somewhat damaged by last year’s storm.

The trees were only somewhat damaged by last year’s storm.
Meaning: The trees were not completely damaged by last year’s storm.

The trees were somewhat damaged only by last year’s storm.
Meaning: The trees were somewhat damaged by nothing except last year’s storm.

The trees were somewhat damaged by last year’s only storm.
Meaning: The trees were somewhat damaged by the one storm which occurred last year.

See Exercise 7.

8. The use of Few, Little and Several

The use of the word a with the determiners few and little somewhat changes the meaning which is expressed.

The expressions a few and a little merely refer to a small quantity of something.
e.g. A few of his friends came to the party.
Meaning: Some of his friends came to the party.

I had a little time to consider the situation.
Meaning: I had a small amount of time to consider the situation.

In contrast, few and little not only refer to a small quantity of something, but also imply that the quantity is remarkably, or undesirably small.
e.g. Few of his friends came to the party.
Meaning: Only a very small number of his friends came to the party.

I had little time to consider the situation.
Meaning: I had almost no time to consider the situation.

See Exercise 8.

The expressions a few and several can both be used to refer to three or more things. However, there is a slight difference in meaning. The expression a few generally emphasizes that the quantity referred to is relatively small, while the expression several generally emphasizes that the quantity referred to is relatively large.

For instance, the following sentences could both refer to an event which occurred four or five times.
e.g. I saw him a few times.
Meaning: I saw him, but I did not see him often.

I saw him several times.
Meaning: I saw him more than once or twice.

9. The expressions Such … That, So … That, and Too

a. Such … That

The determiner such is often used in combination with a clause beginning with that, in order to indicate a cause and effect relationship.
e.g. There was such a strong wind that we decided to stay indoors.
He has such high marks that he has applied for a scholarship.

In the first example, a strong wind refers to the cause, and we decided to stay indoors refers to the effect. In the second example, high marks refers to the cause, and he has applied for a scholarship refers to the effect.

It should be noted that when such is used as an adjective modifying a singular countable noun, the word a or an usually follows the word such.
e.g. such a strong wind
such an unusual event

The construction usually used with the expression such … that is summarized below, followed by examples.

  such a  that clause stating the
  such an   +  adjective   +  noun   +  effect of the situation
  or such  described in the main clause
  She is such a  hard  worker  that she is sure to succeed.
  That is such an  interesting  book  that I read it three times.
  He has such  good  ideas  that he may be promoted.

b. So … That

The word so combined with a clause beginning with that can also be used in order to indicate a cause and effect relationship.

Whereas such usually modifies a noun, in this construction so is used as an intensifier modifying an adjective or adverb. Intensifiers will be discussed in a later chapter.
e.g. The wind was so strong that we decided to stay indoors.
His marks are so high that he has applied for a scholarship.
The wind blew so fiercely that we decided to stay indoors.
In the first two examples, so modifies the adjectives strong and high. In the last example, so modifies the adverb fiercely.

This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

  adverb or  that clause stating the
  subject   +  verb   +  so   +  adjective   +  effect of the situation
 described in the main clause
  She  sang  so  well  that she had to sing an encore.
  The moon  was  so  bright  that we could see for miles.

In informal English, the word that in the expressions such … that and so … that is often omitted.
e.g. There was such a strong wind, we decided to stay indoors.
The moon was so bright, we could see for miles.

So can also be followed by manymuchfew or little, followed by a noun, followed by a clause beginning with that. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

  many  that clause stating the
  so   +  much,   +  noun   +  effect of the situation
  few or  described in the main clause
  little
  There were  so  many  spectators  that there was standing room only.
  I did  so  much  swimming  that I became very strong.
  He knew  so  few  people  that he often felt lonely.
  There was  so  little  snow  that we could not go skiing.

c. Too

The intensifier too used in combination with an infinitive can also be used to indicate a cause and effect relationship. In the following examples, the word too is printed in bold type, and the infinitives are underlined.
e.g. It is too windy for us to go outside.
He is too poor to continue studying without a scholarship.
It was raining too hard for us to leave the house.
In the first two examples, too modifies the adjectives windy and poor. In the last example, too modifies the adverb hard.

The construction usually used with too in combination with an infinitive is summarized below, followed by examples.

  adverb or  phrase containing an infinitive,
  subject   +  verb   +  too   +  adjective   +  indicating the effect of the
  situation described using too
  They  walked  too  quickly  for me to overtake them.
  The writing  was  too  difficult  to read.

See Exercise 9.

EXERCISES for Chapter 20

  1. Paying attention to whether reference is being made to a group of two objects, or a group of more than two objects, for each of the following sentences fill in the blank with the correct word chosen from the pair given in brackets. For example:
    There are two trees on the lawn. ____ of them are spruce trees. (All, Both)
    There are two trees on the lawn. Both of them are spruce trees.

I had three pencils. Have you seen ___ of them? (any, either)
I had three pencils. Have you seen any of them? (any, either)

There are four bushes in the garden, but ____ of them are rhododendrons. (neither, none)
There are four bushes in the garden, but none of them are rhododendrons.

  1. I have three winter coats, but ________ of them are new. (neither, none)
  2. There are two umbrellas here, but _________ of them is mine. (neither, none)
  3. He owns twelve cows. _______ of them are Jerseys. (All, Both)
  4. She has painted dozens of pictures. Have you seen ________ of them? (any, either)
  5. Amy and Beth are twins. They _______ play the guitar. (all, both)
  6. Two people said “Hello” to me, but I did not recognize ________ of them. (any, either)
  7. My wife and I _______ enjoy classical music. (all, both)
  8. I found all of the questions difficult. Did you answer ________ of them correctly? (any, either)
  9. I asked six different people, but ________ of them knew where Walnut Street was. (neither, none)
  10. My friends and I would like to thank you for your hospitality. We _______ enjoyed ourselves very much. (all, both)
  11. There are two public libraries in the city, but ________ of them is located close to where I live. (neither, none)
  12. Two wrist watches were left here. Is _________ of them yours? (any, either)
  13. He has three nephews. ________ of them have graduated from university. (All, Both)
  14. I have two violins. You are welcome to use ________ of them. (any, either)
  15. My aunt and uncle are _______ coming for a visit. (all, both)
  16. George and Tom like playing chess together, but _________ of them likes to lose a game. (neither, none)
  17. The bush is covered with blueberries. Are ________ of them ripe yet? (any, either)
  18. I have read five books on the subject, but ________ of them were very helpful. (neither, none)

  19. Paying attention to whether the singular or the plural form is correct, fill in the blanks with the correct words chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For example:
    Several of my friends ____ present. (was, were)
    Several of my friends were present.

One of his friends ___ absent. (was, were)
One of his friends was absent.

Each of the dogs pricked up ___ ears. (its, their)
Each of the dogs pricked up its ears.

All of the dogs pricked up _____ ears. (its, their)
All of the dogs pricked up their ears.

  1. Each of her friends ________ a university degree. (has, have)
  2. Many of the birds in this park _________ here throughout the year. (live, lives)
  3. Both of the children wanted to finish _________ work early. (his, their)
  4. Every writer should learn from _________ own experiences. (his or her, their)
  5. Either of my daughters can lend you _________ skis. (her, their)
  6. Few of her ideas ________ as intriguing as this one. (are, is)
  7. All of the visitors expressed _________ thanks. (his or her, their)
  8. Each of our customers ________ important. (are, is)
  9. One of the canaries ate only half _________ food. (its, their)
  10. Either of the routes ________ a good choice. (are, is)
  11. Neither of the boys forgot _________ books. (his, their)
  12. Both of the drawings _______ beautiful. (are, is)
  13. Neither of my uncles _________ to us often. (write, writes)
  14. Every girl clapped _________ hands. (her, their)
  15. Paying attention to whether an adjective, pronoun or adverb is required, complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with nonone or not, as appropriate. For example:
    There is __ danger.
    There is no danger.

____ of the trees are evergreens.
None of the trees are evergreens.

It was ___ raining when I left home.
It was not raining when I left home.

  1. There is ________ wind this morning.
  2. I have ________ finished reading the book.
  3. _______ of the children were late for school.
  4. We did ________ tell anyone the secret.
  5. I have ________ idea what time it is.
  6. ________ of the streets have been plowed.
  7. ________ bicycles are allowed on the grass.
  8. He is ________ ready.
  9. ________ harm was done.
  10. There is ________ time to lose.
  11. She is ________ expected to arrive until tomorrow.
  12. ________ of the stores are open.
  13. Rewrite the following sentences as negative statements, in which the word some is replaced by the word any. For example:
    He has sold some apples.
    He has not sold any apples.

I need to buy some shoes.
I do not need to buy any shoes.

  1. I will make some salad.
  2. We need some onions.
  3. I have met some of your friends.
  4. He has photographed some of the most beautiful parts of the city.
  5. She wants to take some courses in Archaeology.
  6. I recognized some of the students.
  7. We have visited some of the offshore islands.
  8. I have read some books by that author.
  9. There is some danger involved.
  10. I have some reservations about your plan.
  11. They have interviewed some of the contestants.
  12. She bought some of the books second-hand.
  13. Rewrite each of the following sentences to express a negative meaning. Each sentence contains a word beginning with some. If the word beginning with some occurs at the beginning of the sentence, change the word beginning with some to the appropriate word or phrase beginning with no. For example:
    Some of the coats are expensive.
    None of the coats are expensive.

Someone is at home.
No one is at home.

If the word beginning with some occurs later in the sentence, change the sentence to a negative statement, and change the word beginning with some to the appropriate word beginning with any. For example:
I have some paper.
do not have any paper.

I saw your glasses somewhere.
did not see your glasses anywhere.

  1. He has some relatives in the city.
  2. I know someone here.
  3. Some of us were surprised by the announcement.
  4. I plan to go somewhere on my vacation.
  5. Some tickets were sold this morning.
  6. I heard someone playing the bagpipes.
  7. I gave her some advice.
  8. Something is wrong.
  9. We bought something at the flea market.
  10. They had some exciting adventures.
  11. Someone offered to help me.
  12. She knows someone working at the Library.
  13. He lives somewhere near here.
  14. Somebody left early.
  15. I saw someone arriving by taxi.
  16. Some books are missing.
  17. I have something to do this afternoon.
  18. Some of the magazines are worth reading.
  19. Paying attention to the grammatical structure, complete each of the following sentences by filling in the blank with anotherotherothers or else, as appropriate. For example:
    Would you like _______ cup of tea?
    Would you like another cup of tea?

The _____ guests have already arrived.
The other guests have already arrived.

Five of the books were returned on time , but three ______ were overdue.
Five of the books were returned on time, but three others were overdue.

Who ____ was at the party?
Who else was at the party?

  1. I want to borrow ___________ book from the library.
  2. Three people moved out, and two ____________ moved in.
  3. Who ___________ knows the secret?
  4. There are several ____________ possibilities.
  5. Where ____________ should I look?
  6. Some students enjoyed the film, but ____________ did not.
  7. He lives on the ____________ side of the lake.
  8. I have _____________ idea.
  9. ____________ people soon followed her example.
  10. Do you know anyone ____________ here?
  11. We are going to move to ___________ city.
  12. Some birds feed on insects, while ____________ eat berries.
  13. Somebody ____________ should have a turn now.
  14. Few ____________ people attended the ceremony.
  15. You may borrow this eraser. I have several ____________
  16. What ____________ have you decided?
  17. The following five sentences, labelled A to E, are identical except for the position of the word only:

A. My only friend drew the picture of the child yesterday.
B. My friend drew only the picture of the child yesterday.
C. My friend drew the only picture of the child yesterday.
D. My friend drew the picture of the only child yesterday.
E. My friend drew the picture of the child only yesterday.

The meanings of the preceding five sentences are given in the five sentences below. For each sentence, fill in the blank with the letter (A to E) which corresponds to the sentence above which has the same meaning.

  1. ___ My friend drew the one existing picture of the child yesterday.
  2. ___ My friend drew nothing except the picture of the child yesterday.
  3. ___ My friend drew the picture of the child as short a time ago as yesterday.
  4. ___ The one friend that I have drew the picture of the child yesterday.
  5. ___ My friend drew the picture of the one child in the family yesterday.
  6. Explain the differences in meaning of the sentences in the following pairs.

  7. There is a little butter left.

  8. There is little butter left.

  9. We encountered a few difficulties.

  10. We encountered few difficulties.

  11. Paying attention to the grammatical structure, for each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with suchso or too, as appropriate. In some of the sentences, the word that has been omitted. For example:
    I saw ____ beautiful flowers, I wished I had brought my camera with me.
    I saw such beautiful flowers, I wished I had brought my camera with me.

The sun was __ bright that we had to wear sunglasses.
The sun was so bright that we had to wear sunglasses.

I saw __ many flowers that I could not identify them all.
I saw so many flowers that I could not identify them all.

By the time I received your message, it was ___ late to call you.
By the time I received your message, it was too late to call you.

  1. She sang ________ soothing lullabies that the baby was soon asleep.
  2. He owned ________ many books that his walls were lined with bookcases.
  3. The boys were _______ excited to sit still.
  4. He has ________ varied interests, one never knows what he will do next.
  5. They have ________ few enemies, they are accepted wherever they go.
  6. The snow was ________ deep for us to walk across the field.
  7. Yesterday I walked ________ far that I fell asleep immediately after supper.
  8. I had ________ a good time at the party, I did not want to leave.
  9. I see her ________ often that I feel I know her quite well.
  10. The visibility was ________ poor for the mountains to be seen.
  11. This is ________ an interesting book, I stayed up all night to read it.
  12. This puzzle is ________ easy that a child could do it.
  13. There was ________ much traffic, I could not cross the street.
  14. She was ________ tired to watch the video.
  15. They have _______ little furniture, it will be easy for them to move.

ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES for Chapter 20

Answers to Exercise 1:
1. none 2. neither 3. All 4. any 5. both 6. either 7. both 8. any 9. none 10. all 11. neither 12. either 13. All 14. either 15. both 16. neither 17. any 18. none

Answers to Exercise 2:
1. has 2. live 3. their 4. his or her 5. her 6. are 7. their 8. is 9. its 10. is 11. his 12. are 13. writes 14. her

Answers to Exercise 3:
1. no 2. not 3. None 4. not 5. no 6. None 7. No 8. not 9. No 10. no 11. not 12. None

Answers to Exercise 4:
1. I will not make any salad. 2. We do not need any onions. 3. I have not met any of your friends. 4. He has not photographed any of the most beautiful parts of the city. 5. She does not want to take any courses in Archaeology. 6. I did not recognize any of the students. 7. We have not visited any of the offshore islands. 8. I have not read any books by that author. 9. There is not any danger involved. 10. I do not have any reservations about your plan. 11. They have not interviewed any of the contestants. 12. She did not buy any of the books second-hand.

Answers to Exercise 5:
1. He does not have any relatives in the city. 2. I do not know anyone here. 3. None of us were surprised by the announcement. 4. I do not plan to go anywhere on my vacation. 5. No tickets were sold this morning. 6. I did not hear anyone playing the bagpipes. 7. I did not give her any advice. 8. Nothing is wrong. 9. We did not buy anything at the flea market. 10. They did not have any exciting adventures. 11. No one offered to help me. 12. She does not know anyone working at the Library. 13. He does not live anywhere near here. 14. Nobody left early. 15. I did not see anyone arriving by taxi.

Answers to Exercise 6:
1. another 2. others 3. else 4. other 5. else 6. others 7. other 8. another 9. Other 10. else 11. another 12. others 13. else 14. other 15. others 16. else

Answers to Exercise 7:
1. C 2. B 3. E 4. A 5. D

Answers to Exercise 8:
Meanings:
1. There is some butter left. 2. There is a very small amount of butter left. 3. We encountered some difficulties. 4. We encountered a very small number of difficulties. [The phrase “few difficulties” implies that the difficulties were unimportant.]

Answers to Exercise 9:
1. such 2. so 3. too 4. such 5. so 6. too 7. so 8. such 9. so 10. too 11. such 12. so 13. so 14. too 15. so

English Grammar Lessons
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