Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 8 Vocabulary Test
- accelerate (n. acceleration; n. accelerator)
- to go faster
The action of molecules accelerates when they are heated.
The poor condition of the motor made acceleration difficult.
- crush (adj. crushing; n. crush)
- to press together so as to completely distort the shape or nature of the object
The machine crushes corn to produce cornmeal.
Passage of the legislation was a crushing blow to the president’s program.
- cultivate (adj. cultivated; n. cultivation)
- to plant and raise a crop; to encourage growth of a relationship or friendship
The professionals had common interests that allowed them to cultivate a working relationship with each other.
The cultivation of diverse crops in pre-Columbian America is well documented.
- to come from or find something from its starting point
The English word “decadent” is derived from the Latin word “decadere.”
He derives great joy from growing vegetables in his backyard.
- dictate (adj. dictatorial; n. dictator)
- to state demands with the power to enforce
The workers were not in a position to dictate demands to management.
His boss resembled a dictator.
- distinguish (adj. distinguishable; adj. distinguished; adj. distinguishing)
- to hear, see, or recognize differences
Some people cannot distinguish colors well.
Anteaters are distinguished by their long noses.
- docile (adv. docilely; n. docility)
adj. easy to control or train
The moose is typically a very docile animal.
Many rebellious young people see docility as a weakness.
- to cause something new to exist; to create
The politician’s charisma engendered enthusiasm.
Economic conditions in the 1950s engendered an era of industrial growth.
- engross (n. engrossment; adj. engrossing)
- to become completely occupied or involved in an activity
The teacher’s lecture engrossed the entire class.
O. Henry’s short stories engross readers all the way to their surprise endings.
- flaw (adj. flawed)
- a small sign of damage that makes an item imperfect
There is a flaw in his theory.
They noticed that the contract was flawed.
- harvest (adj. harvested; v. harvest)
- the act of collecting a crop; the crops gathered
The United States had a comparatively good grain harvest this year.
They were able to harvest the crop before the rain.
- mammoth (n. mammoth)
adj. very large
The successful entrepreneur is now known as a mammoth in the computer world.
The physics teacher required the students to purchase a mammoth textbook.
- mirror (n. mirror)
- to show, as in a mirror
The results of the study mirror public opinion.
The strength of the economy is mirrored in the standard of living of the people.
- negotiate (n. negotiation; n. negotiator)
- to find a middle ground, come to an agreement
He negotiated with his teacher for an extension on the project.
The negotiations brought about an end to the conflict.
- obtain (adj. obtainable)
- to gain or secure something
The university obtained a new particle accelerator.
The painting by Whistler was not obtainable.
- a very small piece of something
Particles of dust can destroy electronic instruments.
Small particles of matter hold the keys to understanding the origin of life.
- transport (adj. transportable; adj. transported; n. transportation)
- to move from one place to another
Flying is not always the fastest way to transport passengers to their destination.
The transportation expenses of products increase the final cost of the item.