Reading Comprehension Passage 25 MCQ Test With Answers - YOGA AND THE USE OF MANTRAS
YOGA AND THE USE OF MANTRAS
The practices of Yoga are much more varied than those of Zen. Concentrative meditation in Yoga is only one part of a totality of activity, each part of which contributes to alterations in consciousness. Many Yoga practitioners devote their efforts to attempts to alter basic involuntary physiological processes, such as the blood flow, heart rate, digestive or muscular activity, breathing, and the like. There are many popular and semi-scientific reports of Yoga masters being buried alive for incredibly long periods of time, of stopping their blood flow, or walking barefoot on hot coals. In a laboratory study, Anand and his associates have found that some Yogis can reduce oxygen consumption to levels far below normal.
A common, well-known form of yogic meditation practice involves the use of the mantra. Mantras are often words of significance, such as the names of the deity. But from the viewpoint of the psychology of consciousness, the important element is that this technique uses a word as the focus of awareness, just as the first Zen exercises make use of breathing. The instructions are to repeat the mantra over and over again, either aloud or silently. The mantra is to be kept in awareness to the exclusion of all else. Mantras are sonorous, smooth-flowing words that repeat easily. An example is Om. This mantra is chanted aloud in groups or used individually in silent or voiced meditation. Another well-known mantra is Om mani padme hum, a smooth-flowing, sweet-sounding chant. Other mantras have similar sounds such as Ayn or Hum, somewhat resembling in sound to Mu in the first Zen exercises.
Robert E. ORNSTEIN, The Psychology of Consciousness.
Choose the appropriate statement:
The practices of Yoga are monotonous and tiresome when compared with those of Zen.
Yogic practices rely solely on concentrative meditation to bring about alterations in consciousness.
It is scientifically proven that many Yoga masters can stop their blood flow for incredibly long periods of time.
Alterations in consciousness is the desired end-product of a number of activities in Yoga.
Many Yoga practitioners direct their activities to medical ends.
Which of the Following is not a practice in Yoga?
Walking barefoot on hot coals.
Being buried alive for long periods of time.
Studying Anand and his associates in a laboratory.
Attempting to alter the blood flow and heart rate.
Collectively chanting mantras.
repeated to learn the names of the deity.
relatively unimportant in yogic practices.
chanted to pass the time pleasantly.
used in Zen in place of breathing exercises.
employed as a focal point of awareness.
Cross out the incorrect statement:
The mantras should be spoken loudly at first and then repeated silently.
Om mani padme hum is a typical mantra.
Mantras are easy to repeat both individually and collectively.
Ayn and Hum, as mantras, are typical examples.
Mu is a component part of the first Zen exercises.
Cross out the incorrect statement:
We have also laboratory evidence that Yoga masters can change their basic "involuntary" physiological processes.
A common aim in Yoga is to bring about alterations in consciousness.
No Zen practitioner can ever become a Yogi.
One typical characteristic of all mantras is that they all have smooth-flowing sounds that can be repeated easily.
A person is expected to shut his or her mind off to all other thoughts and repeat the mantra over and over again.