CHAPTER 9. THE SUBJUNCTIVE
e.g. They demand that he submit a report.
We request that you be here tomorrow.
The Simple Present Subjunctive is also still used in a few traditional expressions.
e.g. Long live the King!
The past tenses of the Subjunctive, and the auxiliary would, are used in expressing wishes.
e.g. I wish you were here.
I wish I had known that.
I wish the rain would stop.
The past tenses of the Subjunctive, and the auxiliary would, can also be used in order to indicate that conditions being expressed are false or improbable.
e.g. If I were rich, I would travel around the world.
If he had been here, he would have been glad to see you.
In the first example, the use of the Simple Past Subjunctive were and the Simple conjugation with would indicates that the condition expressed in the clause If I were rich is false or improbable. In the second example, the use of the Past Perfect Subjunctive had been, and the Perfect conjugation with would, indicates that the condition expressed in the clause If he had been here is false.