Other Pronouns – Grammar Lesson

CHAPTER 19.  OTHER PRONOUNS

1. Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite pronouns may be used without antecedents. The indefinite pronouns in the following sentences are underlined.
e.g. One cannot believe everything one hears.
I will try to think of something.
Nobody will believe it!
Is there anyone here by the name of Smith?

The following are examples of indefinite pronouns:

  one
  anyone  anybody  anything
  everyone  everybody  everything
  [no one]  nobody  nothing
  someone  somebody  something

All of the pronouns listed above take verbs in the third person singular. The phrase no one is used like the other indefinite pronouns, but is spelled as two separate words.

The pronoun one can refer to persons or things.
e.g. One of the boys will help you.
Please hand me one of the boxes.

However, when used in a general sense, the pronoun one is usually understood as referring to persons.
e.g. One should always look both ways before crossing the street.

In addition, the other indefinite pronouns ending in one, and the indefinite pronouns ending in body, generally refer to persons. The indefinite pronouns ending in thing generally refer to things.

Unlike most of the personal pronouns, the indefinite pronouns have the same form in the objective case as in the subjective case. As shown in the following table, the indefinite pronouns which refer to persons form possessive adjectives by adding ‘s.

Indefinite PronounPossessive Adjective
  one  one’s
  anyone  anyone’s
  everyone  everyone’s
  no one  no one’s
  someone  someone’s
  anybody  anybody’s
  everybody  everybody’s
  nobody  nobody’s
  somebody  somebody’s

The indefinite pronouns which refer to things usually do not form possessive adjectives.

a. The use of One in general statements

The indefinite pronoun one is used in formal English to make general statements.
e.g. By working systematically, one may achieve the results one desires.
In legal matters, one must always make sure of one’s facts.

When used in this way, one refers to persons in general, and has the reflexive form oneself.
e.g. One should prepare oneself to deal with any emergency.

In informal English, the personal pronoun you is usually used in making general statements. Thus, in informal English, the ideas in the above sentences might be expressed:
e.g. By working systematically, you may achieve the results you desire.
In legal matters, you must always make sure of your facts.
You should prepare yourself to deal with any emergency.

Occasionally, the pronoun we is used in general statements. This use of the pronoun we is most likely to occur in formal speeches.
e.g. By working systematically, we may achieve the results we desire.
In legal matters, we must always make sure of our facts.
We should prepare ourselves to deal with any emergency.

It is considered grammatically incorrect to use more than one type of pronoun in a general statement such as those given above. For instance, if a general statement is begun using the pronoun one, the pronoun one must be used throughout the statement. As shown above, the possessive adjectives and reflexive pronouns in a general statement must agree with their antecedents.

The following table summarizes the forms of the personal pronouns and the indefinite pronoun one.

Summary of the Forms of the Personal Pronouns and One

Subjective CaseObjective CasePossessive AdjectivePossessive PronounReflexive Pronoun
  I  we  my  mine  myself
  you  you  your  yours  yourself
  he  him  his  his  himself
  she  her  her  hers  herself
  it  it  its  [its]  itself
  we  us  our  ours  ourselves
  you  you  your  yours  yourselves
  they  them  their  theirs  themselves
  one  one  one’s  oneself

See Exercise 1.

In formal English, it is considered grammatically correct to use the adjective his to agree with indefinite pronouns such as anyone and everyone.
e.g. Everyone took his seat.

However, it is considered less discriminatory to use a phrase such as his or her to agree with such pronouns.
e.g. Everyone took his or her seat.

In informal English, the problem of gender is often avoided by the use of the plural adjective their.
e.g. Everyone took their seat.
However, this use of their is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

2. Reciprocal pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns refer to persons or things which are acting on each other. In English, the following two phrases are used as reciprocal pronouns:
each other
one another

Both phrases may be used to refer to either persons or things.
e.g. You and I saw each other last week.
The houses faced each other.

The two friends helped one another with their work.
The wires were touching one another.

 3. Demonstrative pronouns

The words thisthatthese and those are used to indicate specific persons or things. In the following examples, the words thisthatthese and those are used independently, and can be referred to as demonstrative pronouns.
e.g. This is an apple pie.
That is a good idea.
These are my friends.
Those are maple trees.

The words thisthatthese and those can also be used immediately preceding a noun, in which case they can be referred to as demonstrative adjectives.
e.g. This pie is made with apples.
That idea seems practical.
These people are my friends.
Those trees are maples.
In the preceding examples, thisthatthese and those act as adjectives, modifying the nouns pieideapeople and trees, respectively.

This and these are used to indicate persons or things that are close to the speaker or writer. This takes a singular verb, and is used when referring to a single person or thing.
e.g. This is my brother.
This book belongs to him.

These takes a plural verb, and is used when referring to more than one person or thing.
e.g. These are my brothers.
These books belong to him.

See Exercise 2.

That and those are used to indicate persons or things that are at a distance from the speaker or writer. That takes a singular verb, and is used when referring to a single person or thing.
e.g. That is a computer.
That woman is a professor.

Those takes a plural verb, and is used when referring to more than one person or thing.
e.g. Those are computers.
Those women are professors.

See Exercise 3.

The use of thisthesethat and those is summarized in the following table.

Location IndicatedSingular or Plural
  ThisClose to speaker or writer  Singular
  TheseClose to speaker or writer  Plural
  ThatDistant from speaker or writer  Singular
  ThoseDistant from speaker or writer  Plural

See Exercises 4 and 5.

4. Interrogative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used in asking questions. The pronouns whowhat and which are used as interrogative pronouns.
e.g. Who telephoned?
What did you say?
Which is your brother?

a. Direct questions

Interrogative pronouns can be placed at the beginning of a sentence in order to ask a question. Such questions can be referred to as direct questions.

In a direct question, when the interrogative pronoun is the subject of a verb, the verb follows the subject. In the following examples, the verbs are underlined, and the subjects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
e.g. What has happened?
Who has been invited?
In these examples, what is the subject of the verb has happened, and who is the subject of the verb has been invited. The presence of the interrogative pronoun transforms the statement into a question, and a question mark must be used.

When the interrogative pronoun is the object of the verb or the object of a preposition, inverted word order must be used, with the first auxiliary preceding the subject of the verb. In the case of verbs in the Simple Present or Simple Past, the auxiliary do or did must be used.
e.g. What do you mean?
Which did she choose?
What is he doing?
To what can one attribute their success?

In the preceding examples, the subjects youshehe and one are preceded by the auxiliaries dodidis and can. In the first three examples, what and which are the objects of the verbs. In the fourth example, what is the object of the preposition to.

See Exercise 6.

b. The pronoun Who

The pronoun who usually refers only to persons. Unlike the other interrogative pronouns, who changes its form depending on the case, as shown in the following table.

Subjective CaseObjective CasePossessive Case
  who  whom  whose
i. Who

When who is the subject of a verb, the subjective case must be used.
e.g. Who opened the door?
Who will help me?

It should be noted that when who is used with the verb to be, or with verbs in the Passive Voice, the subjective case must usually be used, since such verbs cannot take an object.
e.g. Who is it?
Who was the fastest runner?
Who will be there?
Who has been elected?
The first three examples above illustrate the use of who with the verb to be. The fourth example illustrates the use of who with a verb in the Passive Voice.

ii. Whom

In formal English, when the pronoun who is the object of a verb or the object of a preposition, the objective form whom must be used.
e.g. Whom did you see downtown?
To whom did you send the invitations?
In the first example, whom is the object of the verb see. In the second example, whom is the object of the preposition to.

In informal English, the form who is often used for the objective as well as for the subjective case. For instance, in informal English, the preceding examples might be expressed Who did you see downtown? and Who did you send the invitations to? However, this use of who is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

See Exercise 7.

iii. Whose

The form whose can be used either as a possessive adjective followed by a noun, or as a possessive pronoun.
e.g. Whose books are these?
Whose are these?
In the first example, whose is used as a possessive adjective, followed by the noun books. In the second example, whose is used as a possessive pronoun.

The possessive form whose expresses the idea of belonging to. For instance, the idea expressed in the sentence: Whose books are these? could also be expressed by the sentence: To whom do these books belong?

See Exercise 8.

c. What and Which

What and which can be used either as interrogative pronouns, or as interrogative adjectives followed by nouns.
e.g. What is that?
Which is his sister?
What time is it?
Which woman is his sister?
In the first two examples, what and which are used as interrogative pronouns. In the last two examples, what and which are used as interrogative adjectives preceding the nouns time and woman.

When used as adjectives or as interrogative pronouns, what and which can refer to either persons or things. In the following examples, what and which are used as interrogative adjectives referring to persons and things.
e.g. What girl would not like to own a horse?
What color are the apples?
Which boy is the best horseback rider?
Which road leads to Chicago?

However, it should be noted that when used as a relative pronoun, which can refer only to things. Relative pronouns will be discussed later in this chapter.

Which as an adjective or interrogative pronoun usually implies a choice of one or more things from a limited number of alternatives.
e.g. Which apple would you like?
Which children were ready on time?
The first example implies a choice of one apple from two or more apples. The second example implies that an answer is expected which will indicate certain children from a limited group of children.

In contrast, what as an adjective or interrogative pronoun is usually used in order to ask for general information.
e.g. What time is it?
What does he want?

What can also be used in exclamations. For instance, the exclamation What! can be used to express surprise or disbelief. The following are other examples of the use of what in exclamations.
e.g. What nonsense!
What a shame!
What a beautiful day!
In written English, an exclamation must be followed by an exclamation mark: !  It should be noted that exclamations often do not contain verbs.

As illustrated above, when an exclamatory what precedes a singular, countable noun, the word what must be followed by a or an.
e.g. What a coincidence!
What an elegant dress!

See Exercise 9.

d. Indirect questions

As well as being used at the beginning of direct questions, interrogative pronouns and adjectives can also be used at the beginning of indirect questions.

Whereas a direct question forms a complete sentence in itself, an indirect question is part of a longer sentence. The following examples show the difference between a direct question and an indirect question.
e.g. Who is there?
He wants to know who is there.
Will you tell me who is there?

In the first example, Who is there? is a direct question. In the second example, who is there is an indirect question which is part of a longer statement. In the third example, who is there is an indirect question which is part of a longer question.

i. Interrogative word as the subject

When the interrogative word is the subject of a verb, or modifies the subject of a verb, the word order of an indirect question is usually the same as that of a direct question. In the following examples, the verbs of the direct and indirect questions are underlined, and their subjects are printed in bold type.
e.g. Direct QuestionWhat has happened?
Indirect Question: We shall ask what has happened.

Direct Question: Which child won the race?
Indirect Question: They will ask which child won the race.

In the first pair of examples, the interrogative pronoun what is the subject of the verb has happened. In the second pair of examples, the interrogative adjective which modifies child, the subject of the verb won. In both pairs of examples, the word order of the indirect questions is the same as that of the direct questions.

ii. Interrogative word as the object of a verb or preposition

When the interrogative word is the object of a verb or preposition, or modifies the object of a verb or preposition, the word order of an indirect question differs from that of a direct question. In a direct question, the first auxiliary precedes the subject, and the auxiliary to do must be used for verbs in the Simple Present and Simple Past. In an indirect question, the subject precedes the verb, and the auxiliary to do is not used. Thus, in an indirect question, the word order used is the same as that used for an affirmative statement.

This difference in word order is illustrated in the following examples.
e.g. Direct Question: What is he doing?
Indirect Question: I will ask what he is doing.

Direct Question: What story did they tell you?
Indirect Question: I wonder what story they told you.

Direct Question: Which does she prefer?
Indirect Question: We asked which she prefers.

Direct Question: Whom did he meet?
Indirect Question: Tell me whom he met.

Direct Question: To whom has she sent the invitations?
Indirect Question: They will ask to whom she has sent the invitations.

Direct Question: For which friend did they make the arrangements?
Indirect Question: Do you know for which friend they made the arrangements?

As illustrated in the preceding examples, when the interrogative word is the object of a verb or preposition, or modifies the object of a verb or preposition, the first auxiliary precedes the subject in a direct question, but the subject precedes the verb in an indirect question.

See Exercise 10.

iii. The verb To Be with a noun or pronoun complement

A noun, noun phrase or pronoun which follows the verb to be is said to be the complement of the verb. When what or who is followed by both the verb to be and a noun or pronoun complement of the verb, the word order of an indirect question usually differs from that of a direct question. As illustrated in the following examples, in a direct question, the verb to be is followed by its complement; whereas in an indirect question, the verb to be is usually preceded by its complement.

In each of the following examples, the verb to be is underlined, and its noun or pronoun complement is printed in bold type.
e.g. Direct Question: What is that?
Indirect question: Can you tell me what that is?

Direct Question: What was that noise?
Indirect Question: I wonder what that noise was.

Direct Question: What time is it?
Indirect Question: Ask him what time it is.

Direct Question: Who is she?
Indirect Question: Do you know who she is?

Direct question: Who was that man?
Indirect Question: I will ask who that man was.

Direct Question: Whose shoes are these?
Indirect Question: I wonder whose shoes these are.

Similarly, when which is followed by the verb to be, followed by a pronoun, the pronoun complement generally precedes the verb in an indirect question.
e.g. Direct question: Which was it?
Indirect Question: I want to know which it was.

Direct Question: Which organization is that?
Indirect Question: Please ask which organization that is.

However, when which is followed by the verb to be followed by a noun or noun phrase, the noun complement often follows the verb in an indirect question.
e.g. Direct Question: Which is the right road?
Indirect Question: Please tell me which is the right road.

Direct Question: Which insects are predators?
Indirect Question: He wants to know which insects are predators.

It should be noted that in sentences with the verb to be, the word order of indirect questions differs from that of direct questions only when the verb is accompanied by a noun or pronoun complement.

If the verb to be is accompanied by an adjective, the word order of direct and indirect questions is the same. In each of the following examples, the verb to be is underlined, and the accompanying adjective is printed in bold type.
e.g. Direct Question: Who is here?
Indirect Question: I will ask who is here.

Direct Question: Who was successful?
Indirect Question: Tell me who was successful.

Direct Question: Which answer is correct?
Indirect Question: Please tell us which answer is correct.

See Exercise 11.

The following table summarizes the variations in word order which occur in direct and indirect questions. The examples of direct questions should be compared with the corresponding examples of indirect questions.

Word order of Direct and Indirect Questions beginning with What, Which and Who
Direct Questions

  Type of Question  Word Order
  The interrogative word is the  Subject precedes verb. Examples:
  subject of the verb, or modifies  Who told her?
  the subject of the verb  Which boy did it?
  The interrogative word is  Subject follows the first auxiliary:
  the object of a verb or  What has he done?
  preposition, or modifies the  To whom shall we send it?
  object of a verb or preposition  Which questions did she answer?
  For which child did you buy it?
  The verb to be is accompanied  The verb to be precedes its complement:
  by a noun or pronoun complement  Who are their friends?
  What was that?
  What time is it?
  Which book was it?
  Which is the right answer?

Indirect Questions

  Type of Question  Word Order
  In all cases  Subject precedes verb. Examples:
  I wonder who told her.
  You asked which boy did it.
  She wants to know what he has done.
  He wonders to whom we shall send it.
  I wonder which questions she answered.
  Please tell me for which child you bought it.
  The verb to be is accompanied  The verb to be usually follows
  by a noun or pronoun complement  its complement. Examples:
  He will ask who their friends are.
  I wonder what that was.
  Do you know what time it is?
  Please tell me which book it was.
 However, in the case of which,
 the verb to be often precedes a
 noun complement. For example:
  I wonder which is the right answer.

See Exercise 12.

5. Relative pronouns

A pronoun which is used to begin a subordinate clause can be referred to as a relative pronoun, since it indicates the relationship of the subordinate clause to the rest of the sentence.

For instance, the underlined words in the following sentences are relative pronouns.
e.g. The woman who is standing near the window is a doctor.
The door, which was bright red, was very conspicuous.
Have you found the book that was missing?
A subordinate clause which is introduced by a relative pronoun is often referred to as a relative clause.

a. Defining and non-defining relative clauses

Relative clauses can be divided into two types: those which merely give a description of the object to which they refer, and those which define or identify the object to which they refer.

i. Non-defining relative clauses

When a relative clause merely describes an object without having the function of defining or identifying to which object the speaker or writer is referring, the clause must be placed between commas. Such a clause can be called a non-defining or non-limiting relative clause.

For instance, in the example:
The door, which was bright red, was very conspicuous.
the commas indicate that the clause which was bright red is a non-defining relative clause. In other words, this sentence implies that it has already been made clear to which door the speaker or writer is referring, and the clause which was bright red merely provides additional, descriptive information about the door.

Whereas in written English the presence of a non-defining relative clause is indicated by the use of commas, in spoken English the presence of such a clause is indicated by slightly emphasizing the word immediately preceding the clause, and the last word of the clause. In the following example, the emphasized words are underlined.
e.g. The door, which was bright red, was very conspicuous.

It should be noted that when material written in English is read aloud, the presence of a comma is usually indicated by a slight pause.

ii. Defining relative clauses

When a relative clause has the function of defining or identifying the object being referred to, the clause is not placed between commas. Such a clause can be called a defining or limiting relative clause.

For instance, in the example:
The woman who is standing near the window is a doctor.
the absence of commas indicates that the clause who is standing near the window is a defining relative clause. In other words, the clause has the function of identifying to which woman the speaker or writer is referring.

See Exercise 13.

b. That

When used as a relative pronoun, that can refer to either persons or things. The relative pronoun that is generally used only in defining relative clauses. In the following examples, the relative clauses are underlined.
e.g. The people that were here yesterday will return in a month.
The newspaper that was on the steps belongs to our neighbor.
In these examples, that has the antecedents people and newspaper, and introduces the defining relative clauses that were here yesterday and that was on the steps.

In the preceding examples, that acts as the subject of the verbs were and was. When it acts as the object of a verb or preposition, the relative pronoun that can usually be omitted.
e.g. The books that we bought are heavy.
The town that this road leads to is five miles away.

In the first sentence, that acts as the object of the verb bought. In the second sentence, that acts as the object of the preposition to. The following examples show how the above sentences can be rewritten without the use of that.
The books we bought are heavy.
The town this road leads to is five miles away.

c. Which

As was pointed out in an earlier section, when used as an adjective or interrogative pronoun, which can refer to either persons or things. However, it is important to note that when used as a relative pronoun, which can refer only to things.

The relative pronoun which can be used in either defining or non-defining relative clauses.
e.g. The suitcase which we purchased last week is very strong.
The sack, which was full of rocks, was too heavy to lift.
In the first example, which has the antecedent suitcase, and introduces the defining relative clause which we purchased last week. In the second example, which has the antecedent sack, and introduces the non-defining relative clause which was full of rocks.

d. Who, Whom and Whose

The use of whowhom and whose as relative pronouns is similar to their use as interrogative pronouns. Who is used as the subject of a verb, whom is used as the object of a verb or the object of a preposition, and whose is used as an adjective indicating possession. The relative pronouns whowhom and whose can generally refer only to persons, and can be used either in defining or non-defining relative clauses.

In the following examples, who introduces the defining relative clause who runs the fastest and the non-defining relative clause who is studying German.
e.g. The child who runs the fastest will receive a prize.
My sister, who is studying German, wants to travel to Switzerland.
In these examples, who has the antecedents child and sister, and acts as the subject of the verbs runs and is studying.

In the following examples, whom introduces the defining relative clause whom we visited and the non-defining relative clause whom we will meet tomorrow.
e.g. The boy whom we visited is her nephew.
Mr. Henry, whom we will meet tomorrow, will be our guide.
In these examples, whom has the antecedents boy and Mr. Henry, and acts as the object of the verbs visited and will meet.

In the following examples, to whom introduces the defining relative clause to whom you sold your skis and the non-defining relative clause to whom we send a birthday card every year.
e.g. The girl to whom you sold your skis lives in the next block.
His uncle, to whom we send a birthday card every year, is ninety-one years old.
In these examples, whom has the antecedents girl and uncle, and is the object of the preposition to.

In the following examples, whose introduces the defining relative clause whose house was sold and the non-defining relative clause whose family lives in Europe.
e.g. The woman whose house was sold will retire to the country.
My cousin, whose family lives in Europe, will visit us for a few weeks.
In these examples, whose has the antecedents woman and cousin, and modifies the nouns house and family. In the case of whose, it should be noted that it is the antecedent which must be a person; the noun being modified may be a person or a thing.

See Exercises 14 and 15.

In informal English, whose at the beginning of a clause is occasionally used to refer not only to persons, but also to things, in order to make a simpler sentence. For example, the following sentence is considered grammatically correct in formal English.
e.g. The tree, the branches of which overhung the street, was covered with blossoms.
In informal English, the phrase the branches of which might be replaced by whose branches, as illustrated in the following example.
e.g. The tree, whose branches overhung the street, was covered with blossoms.
However, this use of whose is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

e. Comparison of the use of That, Which and Who

The use of the relative pronouns thatwhich and who is summarized in the following table.

Relative PronounType of ClauseType of Antecedent
  that  defining clause only  persons or things
  which  defining or non-defining  things only
  who/whom/whose  defining or non-defining  persons only

From the preceding table it can be inferred that in the case of defining relative clauses, that may be used to replace whowhom or which. For instance, the following sentences:
The boy whom we saw is her brother.
The hat which you are wearing is rather large.
could be rewritten:
The boy that we saw is her brother.
The hat that you are wearing is rather large.

Like the relative pronoun thatwhom and which can generally be omitted when they act as the object of the verb in a relative clause. Thus, the preceding sentences could also be rewritten:
The boy we saw is her brother.
The hat you are wearing is rather large.

It should be noted that when whom or which is the object of a preposition, the preposition immediately precedes the relative pronoun.
e.g. The boy to whom we sent the message was excited.
The room to which you will be conducted has beautiful furniture.
In these examples, whom and which are immediately preceded by the preposition to.

However, when the relative pronoun that is the object of a preposition, the preposition is normally placed at the end of the relative clause. For instance, if that is used, the second example must be rewritten as follows:
The room that you will be conducted to has beautiful furniture.

f. Other relative pronouns

Relative pronouns such as whatwhatever and whoever are normally used without antecedents. When used as a relative pronoun, what has the meaning the thing or things that.
e.g. What you say is true.
What he did was wrong.
In these examples, the relative pronoun what introduces the clauses what you say and what he did. Such clauses are often referred to as noun clauses, since they can serve some of the functions of a noun. For instance, in the preceding sentences, the clause what you say acts as the subject of the verb is, and the clause what he did acts as the subject of the verb was.

Whatever has the meaning no matter what, or anything whichWhoever has the meaning no matter who, or anyone who.
e.g. You can tell me whatever you like.
Let in whoever comes to the door.
In these examples, the noun clauses whatever you like and whoever comes to the door act as the objects of the verbs in the main clauses.

EXERCISES for Chapter 19

  1. For each of the following general statements, change all of the pronouns and possessive adjectives to agree with the pronoun given in brackets. For example:
    We must work to keep our environment healthy. (you)
    You must work to keep your environment healthy.

You should always pay your income tax before the deadline. (one)
One should always pay one’s income tax before the deadline.

One should not think only of oneself. (we)
We should not think only of ourselves.

  1. We should work in order to realize our ambitions. (one)
  2. When you are overworked, you should try to give yourself time to relax. (we)
  3. One can never be sure whether one’s intuitions are correct. (you)
  4. If one organizes one’s time properly, one can accomplish a great deal. (we)
  5. If you own property, you should protect yourself with a good insurance policy. (one)
  6. We should never be afraid to state our views. (you)
  7. One should try to educate oneself as well as possible. (you)
  8. We should try to teach our children a sense of responsibility. (one)
  9. One can choose one’s friends, but one cannot choose one’s relatives. (we)
  10. We become mature when we learn to trust our own judgement. (you)
  11. You learn from your mistakes. (we)
  12. You should always treat your friends well. (one)
  13. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with this or these. Use this to refer to a single person or thing, and use these to refer to more than one person or thing. For example:
    ____ is her bicycle.
    This is her bicycle.

Is ____ jacket too large?
Is this jacket too large?

_____ are our books.
These are our books.

_____ boots are warm.
These boots are warm.

  1. Does __________ bus go downtown?
  2. __________ are their suitcases.
  3. __________ is his camera.
  4. __________ trees are over one hundred years old.
  5. Is __________ flower a daffodil?
  6. __________ women will perform the skit.
  7. __________ is the main entrance.
  8. __________ lakes are very deep.
  9. _________ is their school.
  10. Are __________ radishes?
  11. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with that or those. Use that to refer to a single person or thing, and use those to refer to more than one person or thing. For example:
    ____ is a hovercraft.
    That is a hovercraft.

____ plane flies to Geneva.
That plane flies to Geneva.

_____ are peacocks.
Those are peacocks.

Are _____ children on vacation?
Are those children on vacation?

  1. __________ is his pen.
  2. __________ girls are Australian.
  3. Has __________ chair been painted?
  4. __________ watches are not expensive.
  5. Does __________ train usually arrive on time?
  6. Was __________ your friend?
  7. __________ are my cousins.
  8. ___________ is a swan.
  9. Do __________ notebooks belong to you?
  10. __________ are the places we will visit.
  11. Rewrite the following sentences, changing the subjects and verbs from the singular to the plural. For example:
    Is this ready?
    Are these ready?

This towel is fluffy.
These towels are fluffy.

That measures the temperature.
Those measure the temperature.

That pail is made of aluminum.
Those pails are made of aluminum.

  1. This was finished last week.
  2. Is that radiator working?
  3. This picture is ours.
  4. That has been completed.
  5. This was designed by his aunt.
  6. That does not need to be altered.
  7. This table is made of wood.
  8. Has that student seen the play?
  9. This umbrella is new.
  10. That river flows through the mountains.
  11. Rewrite the following sentences, changing the subjects and verbs from the plural to the singular. For example:
    These were on sale.
    This was on sale.

Are these books interesting?
Is this book interesting?

Those have been useful.
That has been useful.

Those plays were popular.
That play was popular.

  1. These were necessary.
  2. Those colors are beautiful.
  3. Are these bells too loud?
  4. Have those been polished?
  5. These shirts are clean.
  6. Those windows are on the west side of the house.
  7. Are these correct?
  8. These boys like to play soccer.
  9. Those are sufficient.
  10. Those curtains are crimson.
  11. Paying attention to correct word order, arrange each of the following sets of words to form questions beginning with interrogative pronouns which are the objects of the verbs. If necessary, add the auxiliary dodoes or did. For example:
    you, prefer, which
    Which do you prefer?

they, heard, what
What did they hear?

we, have found, what
What have we found?

I, should choose, which
Which should I choose?

  1. they, have decided, what
  2. you, want, which
  3. I, should wear, what
  4. she, said, what
  5. he, likes, what
  6. you, are reading, what
  7. one, can do, what
  8. they, bought, which
  9. he, will be studying, what
  10. I, saw, which
  11. she, expects, what
  12. they, had discovered, what
  13. it, costs, what
  14. you, would have done, what
  15. he, will submit, which
  16. she, received, what
  17. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the interrogative pronoun who or whom. Use who if the pronoun is the subject of the verb, and use whom if the pronoun is the object of the verb or the object of a preposition. For example:
    ___ is there?
    Who is there?

___ has been notified?
Who has been notified?

____ are we expecting?
Whom are we expecting?

For ____ did you buy the flowers?
For whom did you buy the flowers?

  1. _______ has read the book?
  2. To _______ did he give the letter?
  3. _______ is at the door?
  4. _______ was awarded the prize?
  5. _______ did he tell?
  6. _______ answered the question correctly?
  7. _______ does she like the best?
  8. _______ would be the most suitable person for the job?
  9. For _______ are they waiting?
  10. _______ has been informed of the situation?
  11. ________ can we ask?
  12. _______ will be ready by eight o’clock?
  13. _______ is watering the flowers?
  14. _______ did you photograph?
  15. _______ attended the meeting?
  16. _______ was at the party?
  17. _______ could be heard most easily?
  18. ______ do you believe?
  19. To _______ did you sell your car?
  20. ______ will be waiting for us?
  21. Paying attention to grammatically correct usage, for each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with whowhom or whose. In these sentences, use whose only as a possessive adjective, preceding a noun. For example:
    ___ is raking the leaves?
    Who is raking the leaves?

____ did you call?
Whom did you call?

To ____ was he speaking?
To whom was he speaking?

_____ bicycle is leaning against the steps?
Whose bicycle is leaning against the steps?

  1. By _______ was this written?
  2. _______ gloves are lying on the table?
  3. _______ lives here?
  4. _______ did they help?
  5. _______ child is this?
  6. _______ was allowed to enter the competition?
  7. _______ handwriting is the most legible?
  8. With _______ was she speaking?
  9. _______ sang the song?
  10. _______ does she know?
  11. _______ shoes are these?
  12. _______ will make the cake?
  13. _______ was present?
  14. _______ curiosity would not be aroused by such a tale?
  15. _______ will he teach?
  16. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with either what or which. For example:
    ____ is happening?
    What is happening?

_____ of my coats do you like the best?
Which of my coats do you like the best?

____ a surprise!
What a surprise!

  1. _________ time does the train leave?
  2. _________ of the three schools do you attend?
  3. _________ is your name?
  4. _________ a wonderful idea!
  5. _________ planet is larger, Jupiter or Saturn?
  6. _________ of your children is the cleverest?
  7. _________ a mess!
  8. __________ is your favorite dessert?
  9. _________ would you prefer, tea or coffee?
  10. _________ of these bicycles is yours?
  11. Using the introductory phrase Please tell me, rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. Make sure that the subjects precede the verbs in the indirect questions. For example:
    Who will choose the winners?
    Please tell me who will choose the winners.

Whom did they choose?
Please tell me whom they chose.

For whom had you bought the present?
Please tell me for whom you had bought the present.

  1. Who was selected?
  2. Whom have you consulted?
  3. To whom will she address the letter?
  4. What did you accomplish?
  5. Which boy opened the door?
  6. To which cities has he traveled?
  7. Which music did the orchestra perform?
  8. For whose sake has he come?
  9. What caused the delay?
  10. Whose house did they visit?
  11. Whose dog chased the cat?
  12. Which books have you read?
  13. Using the introductory phrase We will ask, and paying attention to the correct word order, rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. For example:
    Who is that?
    We will ask who that is.

What was that noise?
We will ask what that noise was.

Who is here?
We will ask who is here.

  1. What is this?
  2. Who was there?
  3. Who was first?
  4. Which was it?
  5. Which is ready?
  6. Who is she?
  7. Whose book is this?
  8. Whose work is ready?
  9. Who was right?
  10. Who was that singer?
  11. Which students are here?
  12. Who were they?
  13. Paying attention to correct word order, use the phrases given in brackets to rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. For example:
    Who baked the cake? (They will ask)
    They will ask who baked the cake.

Whom did you tell? (We want to know)
We want to know whom you told.

To which student had she given the prize? (Did you find out)
Did you find out to which student she had given the prize?

Who was that? (Please tell me)
Please tell me who that was.

  1. Who are you? (I want to know)
  2. Who swept the floor? (We will ask)
  3. For whom did you organize the party? (Tell me)
  4. Whom had they met? (I asked)
  5. At what time will you reach the station? (I need to know)
  6. Which horse won the race? (They will ask)
  7. Whose answer is correct? (I wonder)
  8. Which hill did they climb? (We will ask)
  9. What do you mean? (Please tell us)
  10. What made that noise? (I wonder)
  11. Which students are ready? (Will you tell me)
  12. For what purpose has he called the meeting? (Ask him)
  13. Whom can we trust? (I am not sure)
  14. Whose work was chosen? (They will ask)
  15. Which book has she ordered? (We will find out)
  16. Who am I? (Do you know)
  17. For each of the following sentences, underline the relative clause, and indicate whether the clause is defining or non-defining. For example:
    The sky, which was perfectly clear, was covered with stars.
    The sky, which was perfectly clear, was covered with stars. [Non-defining]

The shoes which are by the bed are mine.
The shoes which are by the bed are mine. [Defining]

  1. The new appliances, which are quite expensive, will be on sale next week.
  2. The picture which is hanging on the wall was painted by our friend.
  3. The people who own the hotel have a great deal of business experience.
  4. His uncle, who sings in the choir, is a friend of my father.
  5. The building, which is in excellent repair, is over two hundred years old.
  6. The door that is open leads to the study.
  7. My friend, who is coming for a visit, is anxious to meet you.
  8. Did you see the exhibition which was held here last week?
  9. Paying attention to grammatically correct usage, for each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with whowhom or whose. For example:
    The person ___ owns the bookstore is my friend.
    The person who owns the bookstore is my friend.

The singer to ____ we gave the bouquet will be performing again tonight.
The singer to whom we gave the bouquet will be performing again tonight.

The contestants _____ names were announced should prepare to start.
The contestants whose names were announced should prepare to start.

  1. My best friend, ________ I see every day, always has something new to tell me.
  2. Most students ________ live in residence find it easy to make friends.
  3. Our neighbors, to ________ we lent our lawnmower, are conscientious and considerate.
  4. The volunteers, ________ enthusiasm was obvious, finished the work quickly.
  5. The musicians ________ we heard yesterday have played together for many years.
  6. Parents ________ children do well in school usually consider themselves fortunate.
  7. Children ________ like music are often good at mathematics.
  8. The student to ________ the prize was awarded had an impressive record.
  9. My friend, ________ I visited last week, is taking a holiday soon.
  10. The class treasurer, to ________ we gave the money, announced the balance of the account.
  11. The engineers ________ designed the building received an award.
  12. The townspeople, ________ pride in their community is well-known, raised enough money to build a new town hail.
  13. Paying attention to grammatically correct usage, for each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with whowhom or which. Use who or whom for antecedents which refer to persons, and use which for antecedents which refer to things. For example:
    The woman ___ borrowed the books is a librarian.
    The woman who borrowed the books is a librarian.

The key _____ opens this door is difficult to turn.
The key which opens this door is difficult to turn.

The children ____ we met are well-behaved.
The children whom we met are well-behaved.

The story _____ you heard is true.
The story which you heard is true.

The man to ____ you told the news is my brother.
The man to whom you told the news is my brother.

I have not yet received the letter to _____ you refer.
I have not yet received the letter to which you refer.

  1. The window ________ is open is the kitchen window.
  2. The girl _________ recited the poem is my niece.
  3. The woman to ________ we were introduced was quite helpful.
  4. The opportunity to _________ she owed her success came unexpectedly.
  5. The man ________ they trusted was unreliable.
  6. The book _________ you read is the best book by that author.
  7. The Pacific Ocean, _________ may have been crossed by raft during the Stone Age, is the world’s largest ocean.
  8. His mother, _________ he visited frequently, ran her own business.
  9. The boy, ________ was friendly and intelligent, soon found work.
  10. Her husband, to _________ she told the story, was just as surprised as I was.
  11. The pictures, _________ were taken in Algeria, were very striking.
  12. The newspaper to ________ we subscribe is delivered regularly.

ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES for Chapter 19

Answers to Exercise 1:
1. One should work in order to realize one’s ambitions. 2. When we are overworked we should try to give ourselves time to relax. 3. You can never be sure whether your intuitions are correct. 4. If we organize our time properly, we can accomplish a great deal. 5. If one owns property, oneshould protect oneself with a good insurance policy. 6. You should never be afraid to state your views. 7. You should try to educate yourself as well as possible. 8. One should try to teach one’s children a sense of responsibility. 9. We can choose our friends, but we cannot choose our relatives. 10. You become mature when you learn to trust your own judgement. 11. We learn from our mistakes. 12. One should always treat one’s friends well.

Answers to Exercise 2:
1. this 2. These 3. This 4. These 5. this 6. These 7. This 8. These 9. This 10. these

Answers to Exercise 3:
1. That 2. Those 3. that 4. Those 5. that 6. that 7. Those 8. That 9. those 10. Those

Answers to Exercise 4:
1. These were finished last week. 2. Are those radiators working? 3. These pictures are ours. 4. Those have been completed. 5. These were designed by his aunt. 6. Those do not need to be altered. 7. These tables are made of wood. 8. Have those students seen the play? 9. These umbrellas are new. 10. Those rivers flow through the mountains.

Answers to Exercise 5:
1. This was necessary. 2. That color is beautiful. 3. Is this bell too loud? 4. Has that been polished? 5. This shirt is clean. 6. That window is on the west side of the house. 7. Is this correct? 8. This boy likes to play soccer. 9. That is sufficient. 10. That curtain is crimson.

Answers to Exercise 6:
1. What have they decided? 2. Which do you want? 3. What should I wear? 4. What did she say? 5. What does he like? 6. What are you reading? 7. What can one do? 8. Which did they buy? 9. What will he be studying? 10. Which did I see? 11. What does she expect? 12. What had they discovered? 13. What does it cost? 14. What would you have done? 15. Which will he submit? 16. What did she receive?

Answers to Exercise 7:
1. Who 2. whom 3. Who 4. Who 5. Whom 6. Who 7. Whom 8. Who 9. whom 10. Who 11. Whom 12. Who 13. Who 14. Whom 15. Who 16. Who 17. Who 18. Whom 19. whom 20. Who

Answers to Exercise 8:
1. whom 2. Whose 3. Who 4. Whom 5. Whose 6. Who 7. Whose 8. whom 9. Who 10. Whom 11. Whose 12. Who 13. Who 14. Whose 15. Whom

Answers to Exercise 9:
1. What 2. Which 3. What 4. What 5. Which 6. Which 7. What 8. What 9. Which 10. Which

Answers to Exercise 10:
1. Please tell me who was selected. 2. Please tell me whom you have consulted. 3. Please tell me to whom she will address the letter. 4. Please tell me what you accomplished. 5. Please tell me which boy opened the door. 6. Please tell me to which cities he has traveled. 7. Please tell me which music the orchestra performed. 8. Please tell me for whose sake he has come. 9. Please tell me what caused the delay. 10. Please tell me whose house they visited. 11. Please tell me whose dog chased the cat. 12. Please tell me which books you have read.

Answers to Exercise 11:
1. We will ask what this is. 2. We will ask who was there. 3. We will ask who was first. 4. We will ask which it was. 5. We will ask which is ready. 6. We will ask who she is. 7. We will ask whose book this is. 8. We will ask whose work is ready. 9. We will ask who was right. 10. We will ask who that singer was. 11. We will ask which students are here. 12. We will ask who they were.

Answers to Exercise 12:
1. I want to know who you are. 2. We will ask who swept the floor. 3. Tell me for whom you organized the party. 4. I asked whom they had met. 5. I need to know at what time you will reach the station. 6. They will ask which horse won the race. 7. I wonder whose answer is correct. 8. We will ask which hill they climbed. 9. Please tell us what you mean. 10. I wonder what made that noise. 11. Will you tell me which students are ready? 12. Ask him for what purpose he has called the meeting. 13. I am not sure whom we can trust. 14. They will ask whose work was chosen. 15. We will find out which book she has ordered. 16. Do you know who I am?

Answers to Exercise 13:
1. The new appliances, which are quite expensive, will be on sale next week. [Non-defining] 2. The picture which is hanging on the wall was painted by our friend. [Defining] 3. The people who own the hotel have a great deal of business experience. [Defining] 4. His uncle, who sings in the choir, is a friend of my father. [Non-defining] 5. The building, which is in excellent repair, is over two hundred years old. [Non-defining] 6. The door that is open leads to the study. [Defining] 7. My friend, who is coming for a visit, is anxious to meet you. [Non-defining] 8. Did you see the exhibition which was held here last week? [Defining]

Answers to Exercise 14:
1. whom 2. who 3. whom 4. whose 5. whom 6. whose 7. who 8. whom 9. whom 10. whom 11. who 12. whose

Answers to Exercise 15:
1. which 2. who 3. whom 4. which 5. whom 6. which 7. which 8. whom 9. who 10. whom 11. which 12. which

English Grammar Lessons
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