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400 Must Have Words for the TOEFL LESSON 4 – Petroleum Alternatives Vocabulary Test

400 Must Have Words for the TOEFL LESSON 4 - Petroleum Alternatives Vocabulary Test

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Word List

constraint [kənˈstreɪnt] n.

Something that restricts thought or action

 The constraints of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morris more than once a month.

Parts of speech     constrain v.

contamination [kənˌtæməˈneɪʃ(ə)n] n.

Being made less clean by a germ or hazardous substance

 The contamination in the river came from the factory located just upstream.

Parts of speech     contaminate v., contaminant n.

deplete [dəˈplit] v.

To greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material

 The prolonged war depleted the country’s national treasury.

Parts of speech     depletion n.

dispose of [diˈspouzəv] v.

To throw away; to get rid of; to kill

 She disposed of her unwanted possessions before moving.

Usage tips     Dispose of should be learned as a unit.In this meaning, dispose does not occur without of.

Parts of speech     disposal n., disposable adj.

elementally [ˌeləˈmen(t)li] adv.

In terms of elements; basically

 Elementally, coal and diamonds are the same.

Parts of speech     element n., elemental adj.

emission [əˈmɪʃ(ə)n] n.

Sending out from a small space into the general environment; a substance discharged into the air

 The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of pollutants into the air.

Usage tips     Emission is usually followed by an of phrase.

Parts of speech     emit v.

extinction [ɪkˈstɪŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n] n.

Complete disappearance; the end of existence

 Human beings have caused the extinction of many other species.

Usage tips     Extinction implies an absolute end; an extinct thing cannot be brought back into existence.

Parts of speech     extinct adj.

reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑːr] n.

A place where a liquid is collected and stored

 Cult members threatened to poison the town’s water reservoir.

Parts of speech     reserve v.

shrink [ʃrɪŋk] v.

To become reduced in size, amount, or value

 If you dry your clothing on the “high heat” setting, they may shrink.

Parts of speech     shrinkage n., shrinkable adj.

stable [ˈsteɪbəl] adj.

Firm and dependable; showing little change

 He fell because the ladder wasn’t stable.

Parts of speech     stability n., stably adv.

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