400 Must Have Words for the TOEFL LESSON 4 - Petroleum Alternatives Vocabulary Test
constraint [kənˈstreɪnt] n.
Something that restricts thought or action
→ The constraints of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morris more than once a month.
Parts of speech constrain v.
contamination [kənˌtæməˈneɪʃ(ə)n] n.
Being made less clean by a germ or hazardous substance
→ The contamination in the river came from the factory located just upstream.
Parts of speech contaminate v., contaminant n.
deplete [dəˈplit] v.
To greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material
→ The prolonged war depleted the country’s national treasury.
Parts of speech depletion n.
dispose of [diˈspouzəv] v.
To throw away; to get rid of; to kill
→ She disposed of her unwanted possessions before moving.
Usage tips Dispose of should be learned as a unit.In this meaning, dispose does not occur without of.
Parts of speech disposal n., disposable adj.
elementally [ˌeləˈmen(t)li] adv.
In terms of elements; basically
→ Elementally, coal and diamonds are the same.
Parts of speech element n., elemental adj.
emission [əˈmɪʃ(ə)n] n.
Sending out from a small space into the general environment; a substance discharged into the air
→ The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of pollutants into the air.
Usage tips Emission is usually followed by an of phrase.
Parts of speech emit v.
extinction [ɪkˈstɪŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n] n.
Complete disappearance; the end of existence
→ Human beings have caused the extinction of many other species.
Usage tips Extinction implies an absolute end; an extinct thing cannot be brought back into existence.
Parts of speech extinct adj.
reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑːr] n.
A place where a liquid is collected and stored
→ Cult members threatened to poison the town’s water reservoir.
Parts of speech reserve v.
shrink [ʃrɪŋk] v.
To become reduced in size, amount, or value
→ If you dry your clothing on the “high heat” setting, they may shrink.
Parts of speech shrinkage n., shrinkable adj.
stable [ˈsteɪbəl] adj.
Firm and dependable; showing little change
→ He fell because the ladder wasn’t stable.
Parts of speech stability n., stably adv.