Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 7 Vocabulary Test
- brash (adv. brashly; n. brashness)
adj. confident or aggressive; lacking regard for consequences
The brash young man made many poor business decisions.
Lucy’s brashness often got her into trouble at school.
- clarify (n. clarification)
- to make more easily understood; to make clear
Chapter 2 in the textbook clarifies the process of osmosis.
A clarification of the government’s position on this matter is necessary.
- conceal (n. concealment)
- to prevent from being seen or discovered
The students concealed their feelings about the course.
His concealment of the evidence made his case more difficult to prove.
- confirm (adj. confirmed; n. confirmation)
- to make certain; give support
The director confirmed that the meeting would be on the tenth.
We have just received confirmation of your reservation on the flight to Los Angeles.
- convenient (adv. conveniently; n. convenience)
adj. easy to reach; near; suitable to one’s needs
The investigator suspected that the disappearance of the evidence was too convenient to be accidental.
For the convenience of the student body, the library is located in a central location.
- core (n. core)
adj. the central or most important part of something
The core curriculum consists of courses that are required of all students.
The core of an apple is not edible.
- critical (v. critique; n. criticism; n. critic; adv. critically)
adj. very serious or unsafe; finding fault
It is critical to follow the directions for the experiment exactly as the instructor indicates.
The runner accepted criticism from his coach very well.
- a difference between things that should be similar or equal
The discrepancy in her experiment data led her to believe that she had made a mistake.
There is usually a discrepancy between how coffee smells and how it tastes.
- distort (adj. distorted; n. distortion)
- to change from the original shape or condition, usually in an unnatural way
Time and space are distorted when traveling at the speed of light.
Distortion of the image from a microscope can be caused by low light.
- diverse (adv. diversely; n. diversity; v. diversify)
adj. various; distinct from others
Freud had many diverse interests in psychology.
The diversity of life forms on the earth makes zoology an interesting area of study.
adv. to happen at some time in the future, usually gradually
A good education will eventually pay big dividends.
Eventually the couple will pay off their mortgage and own their house.
- prosperous (adv. prosperously; v. prosper; n. prosperity)
adj. successful, wealthy
In the early 1900s, San Francisco was a prosperous city.
Bacteria prosper under the proper conditions.
- purposefully (adj. purposeful; adv. purposely; n. purpose)
adv. done for a special reason
The course syllabus was designed purposefully to be easy to follow.
He was authorized to spend the money for business purposes.
- reveal (adv. revealingly; adj. revealing; n. revelation)
- to uncover; to expose
The president revealed some of his ideas before he gave his speech.
The report made some revelations about the nature of the conflict.
- scarcely (adj. scarce; n. scarcity)
adv. almost not
The woman scarcely spoke a word of English.
Due to a scarcity of water, a rationing plan was established.
- simultaneous (adv. simultaneously)
adj. occurring at the same time
The boys simultaneously screamed, “Ice cream!”
This student is skilled at performing many tasks simultaneously.
- theoretically (adj. theoretical; n. theory; v. theorize)
adv. according to a reasoned, but not proven, point of view
His argument was theoretically appealing, but not realistic.
Leonardo da Vinci theorized that Earth was not the center of the universe.