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Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 4 Vocabulary Test

Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 4 Vocabulary Test

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  • ambiguous (adv. ambiguously; n. ambiguity)

adj. of unclear meaning; something that can be understood in more than one way
syn. vague

The men received an ambiguous message from their boss.
Her letter was full of ambiguities.

  • arbitrary (adv. arbitrarily; n. arbitrariness)

adj. an action or decision made with little thought, order, or reason
syn. haphazard

Her choice of clothing seemed arbitrary.
The teacher arbitrarily decided to give the class a test.

  • assert (adv. assertively; n. assertiveness; n. assertion; adj. assertive)
  1. to express or defend oneself strongly; to state positively

The government asserted its control over the banking system.
The company president is an assertive individual.

  • astounding (v. astound; adv. astoundingly)

adj. very surprising
syn. astonishing

The scientists made an astounding discovery.
The fans were astounded by their team’s success.

  • astute (adj. astutely; n. astuteness)

adj. very intelligent, smart, clever
syn. perceptive

He was an astute worker, finishing in half the time it took the others to finish.
They astutely determined that there would be no chance to finish on time.

  • concur (n. concurrence)
  1. to have the same opinion or draw the same conclusion

The director concurred with the conclusions of the committee’s report.
Do you concur with the details of the business plan?

  • deceptively (adj. deceptive; v. deceive; n. deception)

adv. making something appear true or good when it is false or bad
syn. misleadingly

The magician deceptively made the rabbit disappear.
Richard deceived Joe about the cost of the coat.

  • designate (n. designation; n. designator)
  1. to specify, name, or select to do a task; to indicate

The president designated the vice president to represent him at the meeting.
The designated driver drove every one home after the party.

  • determined (n. determination; v. determine)

adj. strong in one’s opinion, firm in conviction, to find out
syn. resolute

They were determined to go to graduate school.
The judge determined that the man was lying.

  • elicit (n. elicitation)
  1. to get the facts or draw out the truth

A lawyer will elicit all the facts necessary to prove her case.
Elicitation of the truth can be difficult at times.

  • embody (n. embodiment)
  1. to be a good example of a concept or idea

The constitution is an embodiment of American ideals.
Charlotte embodies all of the qualities of a good leader.

  • instigate (n. instigator; adj. instigative; adv. instigatively)
  1. to cause a conflict or argument

No one knew who had instigated the demonstration.
Dissatisfaction with government policies instigated the revolution.

  • mundane (adv. mundanely; n. mundaneness; n. mundanity)

adj. common or routine
syn. ordinary

The student’s mundane summer job frustrated her.
His mother asked him to do all the mundane household chores.

  • petition (n. petition)
  1. to make a request

Canada petitioned the United Nations to consider its case.
The student’s petition was denied.

  • relinquish (n. relinquishment)
  1. to give up control

The troubled executive relinquished her control of the company.
The relinquishment of his claim to the building will allow the building to be sold.

  • resilient (adv. resiliently; n. resilience)

adj. strong enough to recover from difficulty or disease
syn. tenacious

She has a resilient personality and will soon feel better.
The doctor was surprised by his patient’s resilience.

  • stagnant (n. stagnation; v. stagnate)

adj. not moving or developing
syn. still

The stagnant water was a perfect home for frogs.
Some say that television causes the mind to stagnate.

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