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4000 Essential English Words 4 Unit 28: Thucydides and the Plague of Athens

4000 Essential English Words 4 Unit 28: Thucydides and the Plague of Athens

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Word List

  • avail [əˈveil] n. 

Avail is help. It is often used in the achievement of a goal.

 His studying was to no avail because he failed the test.

  • expand [iksˈpænd] v. 

To expand is to become bigger in size.

 A balloon will expand as you blow air into it.

  • define [diˈfain] v. 

To define means to clearly state, show, or explain what something is.

 People define success in many different ways.

  • dread [dread] v. 

To dread is to be afraid of something that could, or is going to, happen.

 I dread the idea that I will not get into college.

  • fundamental [ˌfʌndəˈmentl] adj. 

If something is fundamental, it is a basic part of something.

 The fundamental rules of basketball are easy.

  • horrifying [ˈhɔ:rəfaiŋ] adj. 

If something is horrifying, it is frightening and very unpleasant.

 There was a horrifying car accident today.

  • incredulous [inˈkredjələs] adj. 

If someone is incredulous about something, they do not believe that it is true.

 She was incredulous that monkeys could ever drive a car.

  • linger [ˈliŋgər] v. 

To linger is to last for a long time.

 The smell of fresh cookies lingered in the bakery.

  • organism [ˈɔːrgənizəm] n. 

An organism is a living thing, especially a very small one.

 We studied the organism on the microscope.

  • paraphrase [ˈpærəfreiz] v. 

To paraphrase is to make someone else’s writing or speech shorter.

 The students were asked to paraphrase the story they just heard.

  • plague [pleig] n. 

plague is a serious disease that quickly spreads to many people.

 A plague in Europe killed millions of people.

  • presently [ˈprezəntli] adv. 

If something happens presently, it is happening right now.

 Presently, our profits are good, but by next year we can do even better.

  • random [ˈrændəm] adj. 

If something is random, it happens without any pattern or reason.

 Young children often ask random questions.

  • riot [ˈraiət] n. 

riot is a crowd that reacts to bad news by violently breaking laws.

 A riot broke out after the candidate lost the election.

  • scribble [ˈskribəl] v. 

To scribble is to write something quickly without caring about how it looks.

 I scribbled a rough diagram of our plan and gave it to him.

  • shrine [ʃrain] n. 

shrine is a religious building built to honor a person, event, or god.

 He prayed at the shrine for an hour.

  • solitude [ˈsɒlitjuːd] n. 

Solitude is the state of being totally alone.

 John lives a life of solitude because he doesn’t get along well with people.

  • stark [stɑːrk] adj. 

If a contrast is stark, then the things being compared are utterly different.

 There is a stark contrast between their test scores.

  • summon [ˈsʌmən] v. 

To summon a person is to ask them to come to you.

 We summoned the doctor as soon as we noticed she was sick.

  • worsen [ˈwəːrsən] v. 

To worsen is to get worse.

 The weather suddenly worsened, and we had to stay inside.

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