Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 11 Vocabulary Test
- something that makes life easier or more enjoyable
She missed all the amenities of home when she went camping.
One expects many amenities at a five-star hotel.
- disperse (adj. dispersed)
- to cause to move in many different directions
The high winds and rain dispersed the crowd.
After the hurricane, dispersed belongings cluttered the street.
- element (adj. elemental; n. element*)
- a part of the whole
Her presence added an element of humor to the group.
Hard work and perseverance are the basic elements of success.
adj. simple in structure, easy to do
The solution to the problem was actually quite elementary.
You must take Elementary Physics before you can enroll in the advanced course.
- eliminate (adj. eliminated; n. elimination)
- to remove, free oneself of something
Mistakes must be eliminated before you hand in a term paper.
The elimination of the runner from the race was decided by the judge.
- emerge (n. emergence)
- to come into view, or existence
It took an hour for the newborn chick to emerge from its egg.
The sun emerged from the thick rain clouds, giving hope that the game would be played.
- emphasize (adv. emphatically; adj. emphatic; n. emphasis)
- to show that something is especially important or exceptional
The professor emphasized certain aspects of the historical period.
When asked if they would like to leave class early, the students answered with an emphatic “yes.”
- encircle (adj. encircled)
- to make a circle around
The players encircled their coach after winning the big game.
The encircled celebrity actually became afraid of her fans.
- erratic (adv. erratically)
adj. no regular pattern in thinking or movement; changeable without reason
The artist’s paintings have an erratic quality, some being excellent, and others mediocre.
The unstable chemical reacted erratically.
- exaggerate (adj. exaggerated; n. exaggeration)
- to make something more than what it is
The federal government exaggerated the success of its programs.
To say that his business is successful would be a slight exaggeration.
- integral (adv. integrally; n. integrallity)
adj. to be an essential or basic part of something
Knowledge of spelling is an integral part of writing in any language.
A film’s music is integral to drawing the viewers into the story.
- justify (n. justification; adj. justifiably)
- to show to be right or reasonable; to support
The young boy could not justify his rude behavior.
There was no justification for the criminal’s attack.
- mortify (n. mortification)
- to embarrass
He was mortified upon forgetting his lines during the play.
She mortified her son by showing Alice his baby pictures.
adj. persistently overconfident or controlling
The old woman’s overbearing demeanor did not make her approachable.
The teacher tried his best to not be overbearing when speaking to his students.
- to speed up the occurrence or development of something
Romeo and Juliet’s relationship precipitated a violent conflict.
Trade with other cultures was the main precipitant for the advent of the Renaissance.
- prevalent (n. prevalence)
adj. existing widely or commonly
Comfortable trade winds are prevalent in the Caribbean islands.
There is a prevalence of disease where poor sanitation conditions exist.
- release (n. release)
- to allow to come out; to give freedom
A new movie was just released.
The release of the Supreme Court’s decision was expected today.