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Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 14 Vocabulary Test

Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 14 Vocabulary Test

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  • ample (adv. amply)

adj. more than enough
syn. sufficient

There is ample evidence that the young man was speeding when the accident occurred.
She was amply paid for the work she completed.

  • arduous (adv. arduously; n. arduousness)

adj. very difficult or challenging; requiring hard work
syn. demanding

The mountain tour guides climbed the mountain at an arduous pace.
The farmer’s crops survived despite the arduous summer heat.

  • arid

adj. being of little rain or water
syn. dry

The area known as the Sahara Desert is one of the most arid places in the world.
The valley on the leeward side of the mountain was extremely arid.

  • avert (n. aversion; adj. avertable)
  1. to stop from occurring; to turn away or aside

She could have averted the accident if she had not been texting while driving.
The citizens packed sandbags along the river bank to avert the flooding of their streets.

  • defy (adv. defyingly; adj. defying)
  1. to show little fear or regard for rules or established norms; to challenge

defy you to find that book in the library’s collection.
The circus performer demonstrated her death-defying routine.

  • diligent (n. diligence; adv. diligently)

adj. done with persistence and hard work; with attention to details
syn. conscientious

Stephanie displayed great diligence in the completion of her assignments.
The diligent worker received recognition for his accomplishments.

  • enact (adj. enacted; n. enactment)
  1. to pass a law

Congress enacted the legislation during its last session.
The enactment of the laws was in the hands of the Senate.

  • feign (adj. feigned)
  1. to pretend; make believe

She feigned illness when it was time to visit the dentist.
The athlete feigned his injury.

  • fertile (v. fertilize; n. fertility; n. fertilizer)

adj. able to produce abundantly
syn. rich

The delta areas of rivers are known for their fertile soil.
Fertilizers are used on crops to increase yields.

  • freshly (adj. fresh; v. freshen; n. freshness)

adv. caught or produced not long ago
syn. recently

Freshly harvested produce is hard to find in the winter months.
The product’s freshness depends on an efficient transportation system to bring it to market.

  • function (adv. functionally; adj. functional; v. function)
  1. the normal purpose of something

It is the function of the director to organize and lead the department.
Most appliances cannot function without electricity.

  • fundamental (adv. fundamentally)

adj. a primary or basic element
syn. essential

The student government promised fundamental changes in the registration process.
He is fundamentally strong in his area of expertise.

  • indiscriminate (adv. indiscriminately)

adj. not chosen carefully; unplanned
syn. arbitrary

The indiscriminate arrangement of the products made the store confusing.
The book’s chapters seem to be organized indiscriminately.

  • pinpoint (adj. pinpoint)
  1. to find or describe something with precision

The engineers were immediately able to pinpoint the problem with the bridge.
The new, advanced thermometer measures the temperature with pinpoint accuracy.

  • selective (adv. selectively; adv. select; v. select; n. selection; n. selectivity)

adj. carefully chosen
syn. discriminating

They were very selective when they chose the members of the academic team.
He selected Spanish as his language class.

  • spacious (adv. spaciously; n. space; n. spaciousness)

adj. having a lot of room syn. expansive

The spacious plains of the Midwest make up the nation’s breadbasket.
A vacuum is an empty space.

  • withstand
  1. to fight without surrender; to persist

She cannot withstand the pressures of her job.
The old building withstood the terrible storm.

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