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Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 16 Vocabulary Test

Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 16 Vocabulary Test

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  • conscientious (adv. conscientiously)

adj. showing serious purpose; one who works carefully and with enthusiasm
syn. meticulous

She is a conscientious representative of the student body.
They approached the task conscientiously.

  • convey
  1. to make something known to others; to communicate

The manager of the store conveyed his displeasure directly to the workers.
He was able to convey his message to the audience with ease.

  • encompass
  1. to surround completely; to envelop

Her plan of study encompasses every aspect of computer science.
The course encompasses all the literature of the nineteenth century.

  • expansion (adj. expandable; v. expand)
  1. the act of making larger

Expansion occurs when matter is heated.
The laboratory is expanding its capacity to produce computer chips.

  • heighten (adj. heightened; n. height)
  1. to cause to become greater

A very successful interview can heighten a candidate’s chances to get a job.
The public was in a heightened state of nervousness as the hurricane approached.

  • highlight (n. highlight)
  1. to emphasize the part of a greater whole

The owner’s manual highlights the basic functions of the camera.
The final goal was the highlight of the game.

  • inadvertently (adj. inadvertent)

adv. by accident; without paying attention; unexpectedly
syn. carelessly

The reporters had inadvertently failed to include the name of one of the dignitaries.
His inadvertent calculation caused him to derive the wrong answer.

  • inevitable (adv. inevitably; n. inevitability)

adj. something that cannot be prevented from happening
syn. unavoidable

When two weather systems meet, unpredictable weather conditions are inevitable.
The inevitability of the outcome made the challenge less exciting.

  • infancy (adj. infantile; n. infant)
  1. in the beginning stages of development

The new theory is in its infancy and will be thoroughly tested by its critics.
The author’s infantile writing style appeals to young readers.

  • mimic (n. mimicker)
  1. to copy an action

The comedian mimicked the president’s gestures.
Parrots mimic the speech that they hear in their surroundings.

  • paramount (adv. paramountly; n. paramountcy)

adj. to be of highest importance
syn. foremost

The club’s paramount goal is to raise awareness of the importance of community service.
Being quiet is of paramount importance while watching a movie at the theater.

  • proficient (adv. proficiently; n. proficiency)

adj. to be skilled or experienced in something
syn. competent

The exam will test the students’ proficiency in the Portuguese language.
Highly proficient athletes earn the privilege of competing in the Olympics.

  • retrieve (adj. retrieved; n. retrieval)
  1. to find and bring back

Will Detroit retrieve its status as the car manufacturing center of the world?
This computerized information retrieval system is the most up-to-date system available.

  • systematically (adj. systematic; n. system)

adv. done according to a plan
syn. methodically

The plan was developed systematically by a team of experts.
Systematic changes in foreign policy have been proposed.

  • unlikely

adj. not probable
syn. doubtful

Rain is unlikely to occur during the dry season.
It is unlikely that he will want to attend the conference.

  • unwarranted

adj. without good reason or cause; inappropriate
syn. unjustified

His negative reaction was unwarranted.
The motorist felt that the ticket for the infraction was unwarranted.

  • zenith
  1. the highest point

He reached the zenith of his profession at a very young age.
The publication of the book represented the zenith of his career.

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