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Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 19 Vocabulary Test

Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 19 Vocabulary Test

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  • coherent (adv. coherently; v. cohere; n. coherence; adj. cohesive*; n. cohesion*)

adj. well reasoned; ideas that are clearly presented
       *sticking together as a group
syn. logical

It was a well-balanced, coherent presentation.
There was a cohesive feeling among the new workers.

  • emulate
  1. to match or achieve by imitation

Young puppies tend to emulate the habits of older dogs.
Many authors attempt to emulate Hemingway’s writing style.

  • evolve (n. evolution)
  1. to grow; to go through a period of change

The management team’s idea evolved over a period of two years.
The country’s hopes for a rapid evolution of its economy depend on approval of free trade agreements.

  • fabricate (adj. fabricated; n. fabrication)
  1. to make up, usually with an intent to fool or trick; to lie

The executive fabricated the story about the merger.
His alibi is the weakest fabrication I have ever heard.

  • generic (adv. generically)

adj. relating to a whole group or category of things
syn. general

“Bird” is the generic term used to describe animals with feathers.
Universities provide students with the generic skills needed to compete in the workplace.

  • look over
  1. review something; inspect
    syn. examine

He asked his mentor to look over his essay.
She looked over the research in the library’s database.

  • normally (adj. normal; v. normalize; n. normalization; n. norm)

adv. commonly; usually
syn. typically

It is normally quite cold this time of the year.
The new treaty led to a normalization of relations between the two countries.

  • notion
  1. an idea, belief, or opinion

She has the notion that she wants to become an architect.
Some outlandish notions about the origin of the solar system have been disproved.

  • novel

adj. something unusual, uncommon; new
syn. original

The physicist had some novel ideas about traveling at the speed of light.
The novel suggestions were implemented.

  • nurture (adj. nurturing; n. nurture)
  1. to support and encourage the development of something

The owner of the vineyard carefully nurtures the grapevines in order to produce the best grapes.
That school is well-known for having a nurturing learning environment.

  • opposition (adj. opposed; v. oppose)
  1. the state of acting against; not being in agreement

The students voiced their opposition to the rise in tuition.
The government opposed price controls.

  • relate (adj. related; n. relation; n. relationship)
  1. to tell; to show a connection between two things

Although they did not agree with the plan, they did not relate their opposition to it.
What is the relationship between supply and demand?

  • suspect (adj. suspected; n. suspicion; n. suspect)
  1. to think that something is true, but having no proof

He suspected that the substance was not present in the compound.
I have a suspicion that he will want to participate in the investigation.

  • transform (n. transformation; n. transformer)
  1. to change in form or appearance

The leader’s policies transformed the country in many positive ways.
The student’s transformation from a “D” student to a “B” student was remarkable.

  • trigger (adj. triggered)
  1. to initiate, cause, or start

The possibility of being in the path of a hurricane triggered fear in the residents of coastal areas.
The town hall meeting triggered a lively debate about the need for increased taxes.

  • unbiased

adj. with no preconceptions
syn. objective

Her unbiased analysis of the problem allowed her to find the solution more rapidly.
Here is unbiased proof that nitrogen exists in this compound.

  • varied (adv. variably; adj. variable; adj. various; v. vary; n. variant; n. variety; n. variation; n. variability)

adj. being of many different types
syn. diverse

The class expressed varied opinions about the movie.
There are various ways to solve the problem.

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