Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 21 Vocabulary Test
- affluent (n. affluence)
adj. rich in money or means; prosperous
He is not from an affluent family, but he worked hard and was able to attend college.
The affluent supporter had a building named in her honor.
- decline (n. decline)
- to move from good to bad, or from much to little; to refuse
The old man’s health has declined since he retired.
Serious communicable diseases are on the decline in most parts of the world.
- a sudden and intense release of something
The joke caused an outburst of laughter from the audience.
There was an outburst of complaints from the students when the teacher moved the test to Monday.
adj. strongly supporting a group or point of view
Partisan political infighting has caused a decline in the efficiency of Congress.
His views reflected his partisan bias.
- pattern (adj. patterned; v. pattern)
- a regular, repeated arrangement or action
The bright pattern of the monarch butterfly distracts its predators.
The new stadium was patterned after the old traditional ballparks.
- phenomena (adv. phenomenally; adj. phenomenal; n. phenomenon)
- natural events or facts; strange or notable happenings
Rain showers are almost unknown phenomena in the Atacama Desert of Chile.
The musician’s phenomenal performance was applauded by the critics.
- philanthropic (n. philanthropist; n. philanthropy)
adj. a feeling of love for people, usually resulting in financial aid to worthy causes
The philanthropic work of the foundation benefits all sectors of society.
His philanthropy is recognized around the world.
- placid (adv. placidly)
adj. quiet; not easily upset
The placid nature of her personality made her easy to work with.
The waves moved placidly toward shore.
- plentiful (adv. plentifully; n. plenty)
adj. more than sufficient
Examples of Miro’s art are plentiful.
A balanced diet normally provides plenty of the necessary vitamins.
- a bias toward certain things or actions
He has a propensity to procrastinate.
She has a propensity for being extremely friendly to newcomers.
- reaction (adv. reactively; adj. reactive; v. react; adj. reactionary)
- a reply; a change that occurs when substances are mixed
When chlorine and ammonia are mixed, the chemical reaction causes chlorine gas.
They reacted to the report by making some swift changes in management.
- rhythm (adv. rhythmically; adj. rhythmic)
- a regular pattern, usually in music
The rhythm of the rain hitting the roof put him to sleep.
She noticed the rhythmic beating of her heart as the moment of truth arrived.
- run into
- v.to come into contact with something or someone
She ran into her old roommate at the reunion.
The distracted driver narrowly avoided running into the tree.
- scenic (adv. scenically; n. scenery; n. scene)
adj. concerning pleasant natural surroundings
The scenic route to the summit is much more interesting than the fastest route.
The scenery in rural Japan is impressive.
- shallow (adv. shallowly; n. shallowness)
adj. not far from top to bottom
Estuaries are typically shallow bodies of water.
The results of their research demonstrated the shallowness of the hypothesis.
- sheltered (v. shelter; n. shelter)
adj. protected from harmful elements; isolated from reality
She has led a sheltered life, her parents having done everything for her.
Everyone looked for shelter from the blazing sun.
- vanishing (v. vanish)
adj. going out of sight
The red squirrel is a vanishing species that needs a protected habitat to survive.
No one knows with certainty what caused the dinosaurs to vanish from the face of the earth.