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Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 23 Vocabulary Test

Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 23 Vocabulary Test

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  • allusion (v. allude)
  1. a quotation or mention, often of another person’s work
  2. K. Rowling often alludes to Greek and Roman mythology in her character names.
    She alluded to her Lithuanian heritage in her autobiography.
  • analogous (n. analogy)

adj. alike in some way
syn. similar to

The action of light waves is analogous to the action of sound waves.
The analogy between the behavior of the bacteria in the lab and in the human body is not clear.

  • compel (adv. compellingly; adj. compelling)
  1. to make something happen by necessity or force

The representatives were compelled to vote in favor of the legislation despite their personal opposition to it.
The lawyer’s plea was made in a compelling manner.

  • compile (n. compilation)
  1. to collect

The film club asked each of its members to compile a list of his or her favorite movies.
The book is a compilation of Shakespeare’s plays.

  • formidable (adv. formidably)

adj. difficult; causing worry or fear
syn. overwhelming

Their formidable opponents gave no sign of weakness.
The man’s voice echoed formidably throughout the hallway.

  • intrusive (adv. intrusively; v. intrude; n. intrusion; n. intruder)

adj. the state of being inside when not desired to be there by others
syn. annoying

The intrusive bacteria caused his condition to worsen.
The intrusion of the hazardous gas made it difficult to live in the house.

  • periodic (adj. periodical; adv. periodically)

adj. occurring at specific, determined periods of time
syn. regularly

Periodic payments must be made on home loans.
Some people need periodic doses of medicine.

  • prone

adj. likely to do something
syn. inclined to

Most liquids are prone to contract when frozen.
She is prone to study hard the night before her tests.

  • prophetic (adv. prophetically; v. prophesy; n. prophecy; n. prophet)

adj. correctly telling about future events
syn. predictive

His prophetic powers were investigated by a team of psychologists.
The brilliant student fulfilled his teacher’s prophecy that he would be a successful doctor.

  • proportions (adv. proportionally; adj. proportional; adj. proportionate; adv. proportionately)
  1. the relationship of size or importance when compared to another object or person
    syn.dimensions adj. proportional

The goal of establishing a space station will take a team effort of major proportions.
The pilot’s salary is proportional to that of pilots of other airlines.

  • readily (adj. ready; v. ready; n. readiness)

adv. willingly; easily
syn. freely

The workers readily complained about the food in the cafeteria.
Her readiness to cooperate was an important factor in the investigation.

  • reliably (adj. reliable; adj. reliant; v. rely; n. reliability; n. reliance)

adv. in a trusted way
syn. dependably

An appliance must perform its task reliably to be popular with consumers.
Satellite photos show the smallest details with great reliability.

  • reluctantly (adj. reluctant; n. reluctance)

adj. unwillingly
syn. hesitatingly

Although not completely satisfied with the contract, the officials reluctantly agreed to sign it.
The electrician was reluctant to estimate the cost of the repair work.

  • renown (adj. renowned)
  1. fame

This school is of great renown.
The renowned conductor made a guest appearance at the concert.

  • revive (n. revival; adj. revived)
  1. to restore to life or bring back into memory

The students revived the old tradition of having a homecoming dance.
Old plays are sometimes revived by applying modern interpretations to their content.

  • teeming (v. teem)

adj. to be full of something; crowded
syn. overflowing

The pond teemed with young fish in the warmer months.
Her essay was teeming with convincing arguments.

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