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Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 26 Vocabulary Test

Essential Words for the TOEFL Lesson 26 Vocabulary Test

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  • abolish
  1. to put an end to something

Many states have abolished the use of cell phones while driving.
Activists have been attempting to abolish animal testing for decades.

  • chaotic (n. chaos)

adj. being in complete disorder and confusion
syn. disorganized

The traffic in Seoul is often chaotic.
There was complete chaos when the world champions arrived at the airport.

  • controversial (adv. controversially; n. controversy)

adj. causing disagreement or argument
syn. divisive

The governor made a controversial decision to raise taxes.
The controversy was caused by the proposal to build an airport in the area.

  • exemplify (adj. exemplary)
  1. to give an example

The recent downturn in the housing industry exemplifies the poor economic conditions.
Her exemplary academic achievement is representative of most students at this institution.

  • factor in
  1. account for something while making a decision or analysis
    syn. consider

The family had to factor in the price of gasoline as they planned their road trip.
The architect did not factor in the required distance from the sidewalk in his design.

  • falter
  1. to hesitate or waver

In 2008, the United States economy began to falter dramatically.
He faltered under peer pressure and agreed to dance with the girl.

  • gratifying (adv. gratefully; adj. grateful; v. gratify; n. gratification; n. gratefulness)

adj. giving pleasure or a feeling of accomplishment; showing thanks
syn. satisfying

Studying abroad can be a very gratifying experience.
She was grateful for all the work he had done for her.

  • launch (n. launch; n. launching)
  1. to cause something to begin

The company launched a new program to attract more clients.
The launching of the first Soviet Sputnik created concern among the American public.

  • legitimate (adv. legitimately; n. legitimacy)

adj. reasonable; lawful
syn. authentic

The engineer had a legitimate reason for changing the design of the building.
The legitimacy of the theory has yet to be determined.

  • lethargy (adj. lethargic; adv. lethargically)
  1. a lack of energy or commitment; lazy; indifferent

The hippopotamus basking in the sun displayed almost total lethargy.
When it is time to do homework assignments, many students become lethargic.

  • particular (adv. particularly*)

adj. a certain way or thing; unusual; hard to please;
syn. specific

The speaker has a particular way of persuading his audience.
Some customers are particularly difficult to satisfy.

  • radiant (adv. radiantly; n. radiance; n. radiation; n. radiator)

adj. sending out in all directions, especially heat or light
syn. bright

The actor’s radiant smile captivated the audience.
The radiance of the fire prevented the firefighters from entering the house.

  • span (n. span)
  1. the length of time or distance from one limit to the other; to cross

The old man’s life spanned two centuries.
The span of the bridge is three miles.

  • spontaneous (adv. spontaneously; n. spontaneity)

adj. unplanned; uncontrolled
syn. instinctive

The spontaneous combustion inside the cylinder creates the power of the motor.
The crowd reacted spontaneously to the danger.

  • stream (v. stream)
  1. a natural flow of something; a pouring out

There was a constant stream of information coming from the White House.
Water streamed from the dam as workers attempted to make the repairs.

  • striking (adv. strikingly)

adj. drawing special attention to
syn. remarkable

His striking proposal saved the company from bankruptcy.
That was a strikingly convincing argument that the speaker delivered.

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